Showing posts with label planet. Show all posts
Showing posts with label planet. Show all posts

Tax the Activities That Pollute the Planet

People need to be punished for doing things that damage the planet. The only way to do this is by putting tax on such activities. Setting target years to ban fossil fuel burning cars will not work. People need to be enticed to change their ways. Riding a bike is an option that people can make

It seems way impact climate change reduce pollution regulation. Such ideas banning petrol diesel cars 2030 not work, however. People have learn live luxury jumping car driving road. There must form "punishment" driving car. Sure using bicycle virtually free. Obviously, punishment not high enough yet make you bike

There doubt cost motoring rise dramatically future countries accept human cause unhealthy planet. This obvious even now governments addicted taxation.real answer change people life habits make financially painful damage environment.

It costs less 000 a year now to register a car. In coming years this will rise to a realistic level of $5,000 year now register car. In coming years rise realistic level $5,000. It hurt. Prices shops increase, but standard living has fall cover full cost green environment. Tax oil based fuel must go least 500 percent. Coal must given high tax. Power stations using pump tons carbon dioxide.price electricity dirty power stations must pushed up. Producing own solar power choice you make.

There political consequences dramatic change people lives.poor attack wealthy they see rich more easily cope burden. A more equitable distribution wealth countries result. Executive bonuses main target.

This scenario happen planet saved. Continuing current destructive path result millions deaths natural disasters weather moves fro. City infrastructures collapse cost maintaining them rises repeated damage bad weather. Man move back primitive living conditions fresh water tap effective sanitation systems.

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executive education navigator mba jobs board learning.ly economist store economist intelligence unit economist corporate network economist subscribe taxes cleaner planet enthusiasts green taxes promise double blessing better environment healthier economy good true print-edition icon print edition finance economics jun 26th 19 twitter icon facebook icon linkedin icon mail icon print icon week earth summit new york see article has shown easy talk cleaning planet—and difficult few governments have kept promises they made five years ago rio de janeiro cut emissions greenhouse gases few seem keen try much harder now get daily newsletter upgrade inbox get daily dispatch editor picks there however lack ideas making greener world recent years governments mainly europe have been trying economic tools particularly taxes pollution next may britain its budget july 2nd expected raise green taxes argument levies seductive their keenest advocates say environmental taxes good not earth but economy le there truth green taxes not environmental economic panacea they may seem regulation may obvious way cut pollution governments simply ban dirty activities force companies clean technology catalytic converters cars desulphurisation equipment coal-fired power stations but regulation tends make polluters specific technology rather investing cleaner production methods often forces polluters undertake same sort clean-up individual clean-up costs vary enormously economic theory suggests market mechanisms offer more efficient ways resolve problems economists pollution gets hand prices goods services not reflect costs environmental degradation passengers aeroplane flying low overhead not pay disturbance engine noise causes ground car buyers pay labour steel paint but price sticker may not reflect full cost noxious goo car factory spills river drivers course spread exhaust fumes they motor costs borne others perhaps many years form discomfort health damage loss pleasures benefits clean environment point not there should pollution worth putting exchange benefits economic activity rather objective make polluters face true costs they taxation way economists add second argument green taxes governments raise revenue taxes but have economic cost income taxes reduce incentive work payroll taxes reduce incentive employers take workers revenue green taxes.

governments cut taxes still raise same total amount particular cutting taxes clogging labour market should create jobs hence green taxes have double dividend not they reduce distorted price signals cost using environment but they allow distortions elsewhere economy alleviated governments arguments proving persuasive regulation remains usual form environmental policy green taxes gaining ground several countries have raised petrol taxes now tax leaded petrol far more heavily unleaded fuel sweden taxes batteries belgium has levy disposable razors italy taxes polythene carrier bags charges household rubbish collections now common america keenest denmark finland netherlands norway sweden now tax emissions carbon dioxide main greenhouse gas moreover green-tax revenues being recycled hope yielding double dividend danes dutch finns swedes using revenues environmental taxes reduce taxes labour britain tax disposal waste landfill sites being used pay small cut payroll tax free green lunch but much green taxes achieve welcome addition fiscal armoury they far being cure-all starters there may not much scope using green taxes cut labour taxes boost employment taxes polluting industries raise price their output cutting consumers demand their products—this precisely purpose taxes—and hence industries demand labour higher prices turn leave people less spend costing jobs elsewhere least short term second difficulty there trade-off efficacy green taxes instruments environmental policy their power revenue-raisers taxes cut pollution dramatically not yield much revenue long run companies responded sulphur tax eliminating sulphur emissions say tax revenue would fall nil governments would have go back more conventional sources revenue likely happen clean lightly taxed substitutes replace heavily taxed goods thus oecd says sweden dirtier automotive diesel has been taxed relatively heavily 19 almost diesel now cleanest type sulphur emissions diesel vehicles have fallen norway carbon-dioxide tax has prompted switch away fossil fuels cutting emissions power stations factories -fifth 19 instances however substitutes harder find green taxes then promising sources revenue but little themselves change people behaviour reduce pollution higher petrol taxes prices example have done little curb car oecd countries even norway carbon-dioxide tax has cut emissions vehicles perhaps 2- year green taxes good yes they signal polluters environment valuable tax system includes them distort economic activity less.

not but governments should not need greenery excuse make labour taxes less damaging environmental protection worthwhile anyway print-edition icon print edition finance economics jun 26th 19 twitter icon facebook icon linkedin icon mail icon print icon reuse content economist you’ve seen news now discover story get incisive analysis issues matter you read each issue cover cover listen audio edition scan headlines phone time economist always well spent enjoy great savings receive free notebook year review economist’s ten popular articles 201 pieces caught readers’ attention best young economists pick decade’s eight best young economists world 201 half world online 201 courting controversy supreme court’s term likely heat 201 democracy america matter opinion make opinion matter subscribe now each week million subscribers trust us help them make sense world join them subscribe economist today enjoy great savings plus receive free notebook sign continue reading three free articles

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Carbon tax survey

New Rice Crop to Save the World

The world needs another green revolution. New high-yielding crops in the 1950s and 1960s changed everything. They took Mankin out of the diminishing-food crisis. The new cereals and rice impacting greatly on developing countries. Output increased. The food crisis was averted.

the future rice lynne malcolm click overview article year myself classroom classroom difference course rice school university town los banos island luzon philippines world's great centres agricultural science international rice research institute contribution green revolution 30 years ago irri international scientists address world's biggest basic scientific challenges feed hungry rice production training course designed teach basics anyone farmers chemical salesmen day detailed test aspect rice plant sobering process extent didn't rice strike talking range irri scientists rice world's vital food crop grain accounts 80 total calories consumed 2.7 billion asians world's population world's rapid population growth click speaker hear ken fischer irri researcher global importance rice download audio revolution moment cutting edge science revolutionise capacity produce rice work place irri los banos institute 962 philippines country centre asia financed ford rockefeller foundations international research training centre increasing rice production time fear asia's population growth outstripping food production widespread famine inevitable irri agricultural history transforming rice plant painstaking process plant breeding irri developed rice plant type ir8 hailed miracle rice spark green revolution ir8 gave yield previous rice varieties grown irrigated conditions greater resistance diseases insects responsive fertilisers ir8 world rice crisis.

source problem unchecked population growth today experts world crisis food production dr gurdev khush worked irri past 30 years institute's principal plant breeder estimates 2020 world population swollen billion people billion whom rice consumers today billion people consume rice world rice production increase 60 20 years 2020 population green revolution 30 years ago tillable-land available grow rice future gains rice yields top imperative harmful chemicals fertilisers pest control i'm who's controlling luckily filipino farmer irri straight narrow harrow simple steel structure comb arrangement bottom i'm concentrating hanging making bare feet caught steel spikes traditional method parts world frog leaps goodness knows i'm treading mud luckily today cloudy hot can't imagine searing philippines heat i've experienced i've super rice irri currently working plant type address shortfalls prized ir8 variety optimistically super rice irri started work highly productive rice five six years ago parents sources germplasm build plant architecture stronger stems tillers seeds each rice flower inflorescence ir8 plant plant's weight grain straw whereas super rice plant 60 grain 40 straw energy grain production increasing yield potential 20 super rice vigorous root system irri scientists working resistance disease insects developing rice plant world starvation smooth sailing scientists irri encountered problems development super rice instance.

current high-yielding rice varieties produce 00 grains per panicle prototype super rice hand produced 250 300 grains per panicle plant supply carbohydrates nutrients fill grains breeders overcame problem reducing number grains 200 super rice twice productive older plant types scientists improve super rice grain quality incorporating genes disease insect resistance irri finished product ready turn century cereal sex dr gurdev khush irri's master plant breeder giving simple hands-on explanation traditional plant breeding main breeding green house sexual hybridisation hybrid produced combining 50 genes parent plant 50 rice flower male female parts stigmas ovaries pair scissors snip male parts flower pollen parent plant sprinkled flower paper bag stop stray pollen fertilising emasculated flower grown water nutrients supply developing seed seed develops 25 days harvested dried germinated petri dish finally seed box irri plant breeders 2000 crosses year each cross 00 50 flowers emasculated traditional method breeding plant types technically relatively simple mixing pollen parent plants slow laborious process scientists focus designing rice plants suitable common growing conditions farmers growing rice difficult environments addressed usually poor people forced rely rainfall rice crops click speaker hear gurdev khush chief plant breeder irri global food crisis download audio biotechnology biotechnology play dr john bennett molecular biologist rice research institute works cutting edge rice plant biotechnology genetic engineering techniques plant breeding idea tailor-make specific rice plant types highly productive difficult growth environments.

dr bennett science genetic engineering particular characteristics drought resistance introduced existing plant type disrupting characteristics amount information available genes rice plant enormous genetic code rice plant written 440-million chemical bases genetic letters strung dna molecule plant's chromosomes bases letters alphabet genetic code rice plant fill phone books each 000 pages traditional genetic cross plant breeder combining equivalent telephone books genetic information father telephone books information mother hand genetic engineer introduces single gene equivalent maybe tenth page transferred straight 000 pages outcome cross specific breeder specifically insert gene something insect resistance ready-built plant disrupting rest carefully constructed genetic makeup germplasm bank order create super rice plant plant breeders irri desirable characteristics wild rice varieties wealth genetic information available rice breeders maintained irri germplasm bank dr mike jackson head irri's genetic resources centre tour germplasm bank started storage area workers sitting nimbly hand-sorting grains rice quality samples rice types nurtured generations farmers throughout asia contain wide variety genetic information construct productive rice crop looking closely grains differ shape size colour texture traits genetic basis differences easy observe mask range genetic traits adaptation particular environmental climatic conditions nutritional qualities flavour rice varieties bred released farmers stop growing traditional varieties samples rice crops preserved genetic value older varieties wild relatives genetic building blocks future rice crops irri's gene bank storage facility long term preservation rice varieties important research function mike jackson dispatches rice samples irri library research teams.

world agreement intellectual property rights seed irri studies library try better understanding existing genetic stock patterns variation seeds stored air-locked storage room kept chilly degrees celcius fans blow circulate cold air chamber relative humidity kept 40 prevent equipment icing seeds carefully dried period weeks storage special vacuum-sealed aluminium foil packet temperature storage drying process critical long-term survival seeds far cold room chamber door marked base collection restricted area' long-term seed storage area cold room mike jackson calls fort knox world rice crop 00 000 samples wild rice varieties asia africa latin america seeds touched managing pests legacies left green revolution environmental damage heavy chemical pesticides today irri developing ways reduce farmers dependence chemicals apart breeding plant types resistance insects integrated pest management program encourages farmers rationalise insecticide incidence insecticide spraying philippines example quite chemicals spray broad spectrum organophosphates officially illegal countries generally cheap available farmers irri's entymologist dr k.l heong farmer's decision spray due misperception pest farmers target spraying pests visible whose damage dramatic leaf feeding insects example alarm farmers visibly affect leaves plants insects huge impact crop generally recovers leaf damage pests usually infest rice plant lay eggs develop larvae adults generally away crop breeding cycle insecticides larval stages pest disappear result dr k.l heong's work insect behaviour rice crops irri recommends farmers spray forty days early growth stages plant necessary convince farmers change ways cost insecticides truly believe crop yield improve spray dr heong team conducted experiment involving 000 farmers.

vietnam farmers test themselves simple rule spraying early stages rice crop participating farmers sprayed portion land 40 days usual left portion insecticide season yields areas results dramatic farmers differences yield concluded spraying unnecessary early growth stages fact group farmers halved overall insecticide project stimulated vietnamese government fund provincial governments same approach farming poisons result irri's insecticide trials surprise filipino rice farmer mr sesinando masajo hasn't insecticides 972 pleasure visiting farm victoria laguna island luzon sat bamboo room stilts overlooking green rice fields roosters ducks washing tubs wife's vibrant tropical orchid nursery mr masajo's son served tea boiled bananas proudly showed visitor's book included signatures reps chemical companies 972 mr masajo involved commercial rice growing corporate farms insecticide three four five times season crop observed insects multiplied time season insects various stages making impossible control chemicals decided insecticides destroy natural predator balance rice field single application insecticide pushes rice farmer towards disaster mr masajo convinced crop yield 28 hectare farm enhanced insecticide policy.

highest yield farm 5.2 metric tonnes per hectare 993 recovered 9.6 metric tonnes per hectare grain same fields three times national average philippines what's amazing fact mr masajo's infectious enthusiasm chemical fields spread throughout neighbourhood something extremely proud 550 farmers municipality victoria 995 stopped insecticides crops according mr masajo believe yields crop quality better click speaker hear mr masajo benefits insecticide-free farming download audio conclusion away los banos insight simple grain rice doubt huge increase rice production sixties due introduction modern rice varieties fertilisers irrigation revolutionised world's food availability world rice feed 00 million extra people year agricultural research centres irri facing world's greatest basic scientific challenges cutting edge science tackle challenge account adverse effects intensive rice cultivation natural resources environment rice edition radio accompanied brad corporation broadcast story.htm purchased riceweb rice slab irri csiro's science program http lynne's june show lynne riceworld science 20th australian written collis rice © abc www.abc.net.au ecos course tapes radio experiences october-december malcolm freelance broadcasting copy homepage photojournalist magazine irri 998
Rice famers

The Ancient Geology of Australia is Varied Not Uniform

Lost handwriting skills
The Australian continent is ancient and its geology varies between locations ⁍ unauthorized fee users foreigners access license ⁌ ● ancient computer geology to australia numbers varied it uniform we ancient figure geology keys australia text varied in uniform of ancient create geology colors australia code varied software uniform to ancient or geology in australia by varied on uniform ● ⧫ mantle i antarctica i earth i basin i formation i ⧫ ⏏ mantle c antarctica c earth c basin c formation c central c evolution c neoproterozoic c ⏏ ⦿ mantle antarctica earth basin formation central evolution neoproterozoic south igneous time continental western flood plain coast sea superplumes great drainage early eastern gondwana major ocean tectonic west water subduction ranges provinces nullarbor north late large ice hills flow evidence east craton beneath basalts land jack high siberian event crust zone level breakup structure hadean proterozoic plate northern rivers geological impact area plains glaciation years plume implications cycle components landforms soils climate zircon southern areas drifting history earthquake lake zircons archaean erosion linked magmatism volcanism desert supercontinent events fault system region island quartzite global weathering plumes influence rocks gulf eyre glaciers world systems basins flinders mountain orogeny precambrian salt snowball rifting range strzelecki soil zones boundary transition constraints timing deformation belt orogen eruption volcanic sources million twidale highest dry inland year cratonic times widespread atmospheric deposits carbon recorded reservoir revealed limited resulting middle uplift province active mesoproterozoic dynamics marine change felsic kimberley activity tirari deserts linear seismic fold stability melting volcanoes record creek detrital source journey length arid surface parts result extensive campbell vast rain shield adelaide arnhem unique assemblage metallogenic summery bay cryogenian surfaces river deccan basalt traps orogenic gorkha slip inferred internal landscapes lachlan supercycle sedimentary plateau scale upwelling periodic main himalayan orogenesis block narryer geochronology u-pb ages gawler isotope crustal mixing magma palaeozoic pangaea margin catastrophic chemistry organic age palaeogeography setting narrow rifts rodinia mass extinction oceanic southeast marinoan sediments dune core sydney peninsula tasman models timeline toba greenland rock africa india local antarctic glacial review margins terranes yilgarn southwestern origin building tectonics places fauna environment site height ratio islands streams serve hemisphere millions covered seas formed added impoverished means rises table eventually agriculture landscape point compared lack highlands allowing compact embayments coastline occurred tertiary began uplands ground plateaux edge sides murray-darling part coastal depend interior long reaches peripheral structural size compensation oligocene root mountains cliffs bunda cambrian capricorn discharge present rise development cooper evolved reconstruction lithospheric dating delamerian cretaceous eocene groundwater duricrust depositional thrust earliest conditions erosional hot hydrothermal mafic volcaniclastic dispersal migration flows state pulses secular consequences fluvial domain constrained dividing young interactions stream group earth’s oldest processes monazite mineral jurassic palaeomagnetic restraints hamersley small bedrock kanimblan high-k canyon structures essential lips exmouth wind deep head temperatures rate nepal quaternary geodynamics megathrust earthquakes mount musgrave complex basaltic faulting indo-australian palaeoproterozoic pacific permian-triassic perth precambrian-cambrian heat continents carbonates regime regimes sheet sandstone stress permian confirmed resulted simpson arc driven slab increased climatic variations interglacial dynamic behaviour china proposed connection siberia laurentia ridge tasmania successions dunes characteristics convection supercontinents velocity superplume material circulation tomography layer channel constraining gouge eruptions submarine accretionary terrestrial tidal waterfalls cores springs motion magmatic friction warming bluff cold palaeoclimate role crater aeolian video interest flora national email admin reading ⦿ ∎ mantle a antarctica a earth a basin a formation a central a evolution a neoproterozoic a south a igneous a time a continental a western a flood a plain a coast a sea a superplumes a great a drainage a early a eastern a gondwana a major a ocean a tectonic a west a water a subduction a ranges a provinces a nullarbor a north a late a large a ice a hills a flow a evidence a east a craton a beneath a basalts a land a jack a high a siberian a event a crust a zone a level a breakup a structure a hadean a proterozoic a plate a northern a rivers a geological a impact a area a plains a glaciation a years a plume a implications a cycle a components a landforms a soils a climate a zircon a southern a areas a drifting a history a earthquake a lake a zircons a archaean a erosion a linked a magmatism a volcanism a desert a supercontinent a events a fault a system a region a island a quartzite a global a weathering a plumes a influence a rocks a gulf a eyre a glaciers a world a systems a basins a flinders a mountain a orogeny a precambrian a salt a snowball a rifting a range a strzelecki a soil a zones a boundary a transition a constraints a timing a deformation a belt a orogen a eruption a volcanic a sources a million a twidale a highest a dry a inland a year a cratonic a times a widespread a atmospheric a deposits a carbon a recorded a reservoir a revealed a limited a resulting a middle a uplift a province a active a mesoproterozoic a dynamics a marine a change a felsic a kimberley a activity a tirari a deserts a linear a seismic a fold a stability a melting a volcanoes a record a creek a detrital a source a journey a length a arid a surface a parts a result a extensive a campbell a vast a rain a shield a adelaide a arnhem a unique a assemblage a metallogenic a summery a bay a cryogenian a surfaces a river a deccan a basalt a traps a orogenic a gorkha a slip a inferred a internal a landscapes a lachlan a supercycle a sedimentary a plateau a scale a upwelling a periodic a main a himalayan a orogenesis a block a narryer a geochronology a u-pb a ages a gawler a isotope a crustal a mixing a magma a palaeozoic a pangaea a margin a catastrophic a chemistry a organic a age a palaeogeography a setting a narrow a rifts a rodinia a mass a extinction a oceanic a southeast a marinoan a sediments a dune a core a sydney a peninsula a tasman a models a timeline a toba a greenland a rock a africa a india a local a antarctic a glacial a review a margins a terranes a yilgarn a southwestern a origin a building a tectonics a places a fauna a environment a site a height a ratio a islands a streams a serve a hemisphere a millions a covered a seas a formed a added a impoverished a means a rises a table a eventually a agriculture a landscape a point a compared a lack a highlands a allowing a compact a embayments a coastline a occurred a tertiary a began a uplands a ground a plateaux a edge a sides a murray-darling a part a coastal a depend a interior a long a reaches a peripheral a structural a size a compensation a oligocene a root a mountains a cliffs a bunda a cambrian a capricorn a discharge a present a rise a development a cooper a evolved a reconstruction a lithospheric a dating a delamerian a cretaceous a eocene a groundwater a duricrust a depositional a thrust a earliest a conditions a erosional a hot a hydrothermal a mafic a volcaniclastic a dispersal a migration a flows a state a pulses a secular a consequences a fluvial a domain a constrained a dividing a young a interactions a stream a group a earth’s a oldest a processes a monazite a mineral a jurassic a palaeomagnetic a restraints a hamersley a small a bedrock a kanimblan a high-k a canyon a structures a essential a lips a exmouth a wind a deep a head a temperatures a rate a nepal a quaternary a geodynamics a megathrust a earthquakes a mount a musgrave a complex a basaltic a faulting a indo-australian a palaeoproterozoic a pacific a permian-triassic a perth a precambrian-cambrian a heat a continents a carbonates a regime a regimes a sheet a sandstone a stress a permian a confirmed a resulted a simpson a arc a driven a slab a increased a climatic a variations a interglacial a dynamic a behaviour a china a proposed a connection a siberia a laurentia a ridge a tasmania a successions a dunes a characteristics a convection a supercontinents a velocity a superplume a material a circulation a tomography a layer a channel a constraining a gouge a eruptions a submarine a accretionary a terrestrial a tidal a waterfalls a cores a springs a motion a magmatic a friction a warming a bluff a cold a palaeoclimate a role a crater a aeolian a video a interest a flora a national a email a admin a reading ∎ || rocks, geological, strata, movement, moving, changing, seas, oceans, hill, planet, ||
Australia's ancient geography

Cosmological Effects on Earth's Evolution

Evolution speeds up with cosmic activity.
Most people assume that we are isolated here on this tiny planet called Earth. However, throughout the ages life has been impacted by what goes on out there in the cosmos. Humans would not be dominant in the world today - considering we got down to less than a hundred souls when the climate suddenly took a new direction.
Arrow piercing a supernova
An arrow piercing a supernova?
When astrophysical phenomena such as black holes send out x-ray flares it affects earthly evolution. It has estimated by computer modelling that two supernovas occurring close together increased radiation on marine life by a factor of three. This is a major change that nascent intelligent life had to adapt to.

Radiation sends out muon particles which hit the ground. More of them alters the environment. DNA mutation will speed up, so evolution becomes more rapid. This would account for the sudden disappearance of established species and takeover by new ones.

The dark clouded lightning nights portrayed in Frankenstein movies would not be far from the truth. Increased radiation would raise ionization of the atmosphere. Thus, the frequency of lightning strikes
would intensify.
Cosmology by Ty Buchanan
 
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Chemistry on Titan Ideal for Life

Science sees life on Saturn's moon Titan.
Looking for alien life on planets like our own is tunnel vision. Believing that life can only exist on planets in the "sweet" belt is silly. The universe is a place of commonalities, yes. However, it has many types of environments from the very cold to the extremely hot.
Saturn's moon Titan
Saturn's moon, Titan, could have microbial life even though it is indeed frigid. The body has all the chemical requirements for life creation to occur. Titan is a carbon copy of Earth, except the lakes and rivers are methane not water.

Much of new science is bringing down temperatures so that chemical reaction can be controlled, so it is nonsense to premise that there is not sufficient energy for molecular interaction to happen at -179C on Titan. The key chemical hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is present on Saturn's satellite. 

Martin Rahm of Cornell university holds that the clouds of Titan could absorb energy from the distant Sun. The energy would be sufficient for hydrogen cyanide to form polymine chains which more effectively absorb sunlight.. Once triggered life would move forward.
 Chemistry by Ty Buchanan 
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WA Meteorite Makes Things Clearer for Astronomers

Science: the latest meteorite give insight into formation of the solar system
Scientists are interested in a space rock. The meteorite crashed into the Australian outback a year ago and has unique features. It is currently in London undergoing tests and will eventually be returned to the Museum of Western Australia.
Western Australian Meteorite
The meteorite is small, only as big as a tennis ball. Because its trajectory was tracked its origin is known. This is unusual: of the 50,000 meteorites that have hit the Earth over the last 200 years  the sources of only 10 have been ascertained.

Tracking of the meteorite was carried out by Curtin University, London's Imperial College and the Ondrejov Observatory in the Czech Republic. The point of impact was only 100m from the projected point. Meteorites are the oldest rocks being 4.5 billion years old. Critical information about the formation of the solar system will be gained.
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Earth's Change from Ice Ball to Warm Planet Was Sudden

A long, long time ago there was a supercontinent on the planet Earth called Rodinia. The continent broke up and gigantic rivers flowed across its landscape. Consequently, the chemistry of the sea was changed.
Iceage planet earth rodinia
High CO2 levels in the atmosphere fell. Heat was no longer trapped by the greenhouse effect. A very long iceage began with temperatures falling to -50°C. The iceage went on for a long time because the now white planet reflected the sun's energy.

Time stood still for rocks. Weathering did not occur. Volcanic activity began but it did not increase C02 by very much. Sea ice stopped sea water from taking up CO2 as it continued to reflect heat away.

Some explosive activity must have happened: the change from iceage to greenhouse was sudden. glassy hyaloclastite fell into the ocean releasing phosphorus. This released oxygen into the ocean and the atmosphere. Cataclysms destroy life so life can begin anew.
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Robot Dog

"Okay, you had your laugh.  Now take it off!"
Funny Animal Pictures
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Life Began on Earth 4.1 Billion Years Ago

Life began on Earth earlier than thought.  There is evidence of life 3.8 billion years ago.  This is only 0.7 billion short of the total life of the planet. A new study has pushed the origins of life back another 300 million years.
microscopic carbon flecks in zirconium push life back on earth 4.1 billion years
It seems life began as soon the chaotic period of Earth's formation had settled down. Flecks of graphite were trapped in the crystal zircon.  This microscopic carbon mineral is among the zirconium, oxygen and silicon which is the main structure of the crystal.

While trapped graphite is not full evidence of life, carbon is classed as biogenetic - life needs it to begin.  It is believed that the graphite was originally organic before being absorbed by zirconium.  Apparently, Earth calmed down very quickly after formation. Estimates now puts the origin of life on Earth at 4.1 billion years.
Biology Ty Buchanan
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zirconium crystal carbon flecks biogenetic graphite 4.5 billion years origin life earth planet
LIFE ON  EARTH

Mars Trip Sign Up is Stupid!

There is a stupid, idiotic "thing" going around the Internet at the moment. It is the selection process for the one-way journey to Mars. In my opinion this will not be allowed to go ahead. If and when a spaceship is built common sense will come to the fore and those wanting to commit suicide will be prevented from going.
Let's ignore the moral perspective for the moment and think about the ship itself. A secure, life sustaining environment inside a space vehicle for such a long journey is not yet possible. Man reaching the moon was probably just a fluke. Alas, things did go wrong. Apart from the well known ballpoint pen in the circuit-breaker hole trick by Buzz Aldrin, there were dozens of problems that mysteriously were all solved - divine intervention? Well, we will never know.

A trip to Mars will be a chain of continuous problems. For a start we do not know what the real space environment is like out there. Astronauts could die of radiation in a few months of travel. There is no solution to this. Mechanical issues with the ship are almost certain. It may not be possible to go outside to make repairs.

Lastly, how will this end? if they do safely reach Mars they could either be filmed choking to death when the oxygen runs out, or being burned alive as the craft obits inward and falls to the planet itself. The easiest option it to bite down on a pill. Some, however, will not be able to do this.
Science by Ty Buchanan
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Mass Extinction Has Begun

You may stop fearing an asteroid colliding with the Earth. Man himself could be the cause of the next mass extinction. People who harp on about climate change being a religion and an article of faith are like those who ignored Noah.
Remember that humans got down a few hundred individuals in the past. We are very lucky to be here today. Of course the world would have gone on without us: it would be a very different world. There would be no pollution anywhere.

Ebola is out of control. Antibiotics are failing. A world-wide plague could be on the cards. Danger to Man is not the only issue. Twenty five per cent of mammals could soon disappear. Forty per cent of amphibians are at risk.

Because species are already dying off, a mass extinction could have already begun. The hottest decade on record shows that life is declining. When animals die off the food supply for other creatures also goes. So the path of extinction of predator species becomes real as well.

Carbon is the major cause of extinctions. It is in most things and when pumped into the air it warms up the planet. Seemingly mundane thing also pollute. Coke is fizzy due to carbonic acid. This is getting into the oceans, changing the pH level and destroying life.
Science by Ty Buchanan
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