Showing posts with label evolution. Show all posts
Showing posts with label evolution. Show all posts

Animals Adapt to City Life Better Than Humans

Humans are not changing much as they take to city life. Animals on the other hand are evolving rapidly. Anole lizards in Puerto Rico can walk across concrete because their feet have changed. Charles Darwin believed that evolution took thousands of years. This is not the case.

humans changing adapt city life. However, animals living cities evolving faster. Metabolisms little creatures running hot. In Puerto Rico, anole lizards travel across concrete changes their feet structure.

Charles Darwin did get wrong. Evolution not happen tens thousands years. It dynamic. Alterations rapid. PCB (Polychlorinated Biphenyls) levels rise cities kill animals. mummichog fish quickly evolved survive poisonous chemical.

The shorter lifespan living organisms faster they evolve. A long-time resident cities European blackbird. It has developed more practical beaks songs. Moreover, their digestive system digest food scraps discarded people. Urban blackbirds longer migrate.

Mosquitoes London Underground have changed dramatically. They breed one-on-one, clouds mozzies sexual frenzy their forebears. No blood meal required eggs laid. Different rail lines have their own types mosquito.

Coyotes wander streets Chicago, going rooftops raise their young. New York mice longer succumb fatty foods thrown away humans. Because people kept alive modern medicine we hardly evolve all. Eating take away food not kill us age procreation.

Animals have adapted city life adjusting their behavior. According experts CREAF, capability assures success city possibility become “urbanite” animals. A comprehensive review published studies concludes urban environments, species often change their eating habits, lose their fear humans modify their way communicating.. Blackbirds city have changed their frequency singing, their distance flight their eating habits. /Daniel Sol

Of human-induced environmental changes, urbanization rapid drastic. While majority organisms not tolerate urbanization well, few there better ever. Why there important differences animals’ tolerance environmental change? A review article published journal Animal Behaviour shows animals have been successful cities are able adjust their behavior challenges involved living cities, find new sources food, avoid inconvenience caused humans communicate noisy environments. Urbanite animals know look new sources food, avoid inconvenience humans communicate despite noise.

According To Daniel Sol, Oriol Lapiedra Cesar Gonzalez, researchers CREAF, ability adjust behaviour changes associated urbanization widespread strategy determine survival species city. In many cases, adjustments reflect flexibility behavior changes occur rapidly often involve learning. In cases, animalbehavioral differences observed urban non-urban areas reflect evolutionary changes or, alternatively, individuals appropriate behaviors have been able establish themselves city. Regardless origin behavioral differences, review points behavioral changes essential survival individuals, especially establishment phase city.

Different solutions order adapt life city. common behavioral changes, according study, related food, ability communicate their relationship humans. In first case, large number studies show “urbanized” animals change their eating habits, incorporating their diet foods associated human activity (fruits ornamental trees, garbage, etc). This makes available much food extent they become sedentary species increase density become pests.

With regard human presence, they have been observed, animals coyote black bear-they change their schedule activity avoid contact humans; many others have lost their fear humans. This case doves, depend heavily food they given voluntarily people not don’t fear, but even learn recognize people give them food, blackbird, has shortened its flight distance order carry activities being disturbed people.

The noise cities has caused “urbanized” animals modify way they communicate. In cities, example, birds increase frequency their singing duration order avoid sound interferes city noise, usually low-frequency. Researchers highlight new skills animals take advantage contamination level examples bats birds have specialized able eat insects accumulate lights night. In cases has been observed birds sing odd hours artificial lights. These results have important implications conservation, urbanization main causes biodiversity loss.” Given expected process urbanization continue threatening biological diversity near future, there certain urgency improve understanding mechanisms behavior help animals cope environmental alterations,” alerts Daniel Sol, researcher CSIC CREAF.
Animals in cities

Neanderthals and Denisovans had Fertile Offspring

Interbreeding occurred between Denisovans and Neanderthals. The genetic map shows the impact of this. Faults in genetic makeup has shown there was a fertility cost of interbreedin between different ancestral groups. Neanderthals were not restricted to western Europe. A fossil from an adolescent shows Denisovans and Neanderthals interbred in the Denisova cave region of Russia.

Interbreeding occurred Denisovans Neanderthals. genetic map shows impact this. Faults genetic makeup shown fertility cost interbreedin different ancestoral groups. Modern humans interbred Denisovans 00 generations bred Neanderthals. Interbreeding associated reduced male fertility. Denisovan DN peaks Oceania, surprising amount found South Asians. Denisovan genes associated acute sense smell. Papua New Guinea Denisovan

Researchers analysed DN 257 individuals 20 different non-African populations world traces ancestry Neanderthals Denisovans — another group ancient humans lived same time — modern human genome. Previous studies shown present-day non-African people possess Neanderthal DNA, people, particularly people Oceania, Denisovan DNA. males happened carry Denisovan Neanderthal DN sections [of genome] successful terms producing offspring others. Professor David Reich analysis, published Current Biology, indicated modern humans interbred Denisovans 00 generations trysts Neanderthals.

hybridisation reduced male fertility according evidence significantly lower Denisovan Neanderthal ancestry X chromosome genes highly expressed testes tissues. "They're exactly parts genome would expect deficient infertility males hybrids," study co-author Professor David Reich Harvard Medical School. " would reflect males happened carry Denisovan Neanderthal DN sections successful terms producing offspring others, those sections removed first handful generations mixture occurred." "scars infertility" genetic history, relevant fertility populations contain mix ancestry today, Professor Reich said. 'Surprisingly high' Denisovan ancestry south Asia

showing peak Denisovan ancestry New Guinea — confirming found recent studies — Professor Reich colleagues found surprisingly concentration Denisovan genes individuals south Asia, Himalayas south-central India. " thought perhaps Denisovan ancestry somewhere intermediate east Asians west Eurasians ancestry mix that, didn't that," Professor Reich said. This unexpected result forced researchers rethink Denisovans moved Asia Eurasia. Denisovan genome map. Professor Reich theories emerging explain finding Denisovan ancestry south Asia. "One is actually independent encounter modern humans Denisovan somewhere Eurasian mainland contributed extra Denisovan ancestry people live today south Asia," said.

theory proposes Denisovan DN modern humans comes single encounter point history, hybrids encounter spread region, east south Asia New Guinea Australia. " subsequent mixture diluted Denisovan ancestry mainland, dilution occurred different extents, explaining variability today," Professor Reich said. team's genetic analysis added understanding impact Denisovan ancestry, suggestion Denisovan genes linked subtle sense smell.
Cheese found in tomb

Origin of Man Was Not Africa

   Man did not all come from the dark jungle land. . ▶ | human to australia battle mp3 ultimate highlights option across high campaign clear policy fuller origin as man formal attenborough human publication legal court supremacy parliament may origin of man was not africa service american not food vote brazenness breathtaking telegraph origin go man at africa parliamentary monitors constitutional sudden did support niceties origin if man in africa process referendum john common confident courts statement was elite top official origin at man to africa approval particular stronger somersault edition does household origin excellent draw gravy inevitably it parties phone power title election supreme brown propriety richard am train sheer personal sovereignty everyone remainers general tack | in human of |◀ |
Australian Aboriginal
We were taught that anthropologists knew it all, and everything they held about human evolution was correct. Human lineage could be placed on a timeline This is now proved to be incorrect: Papuans came out of Africa much earlier than the 50,000 to 80,000 years assumption. These people left the continent of Eden at least 100,000 yrs ago. The Original African theory supposed an Eve living as far back as 200,000. | ▶ not. |◀ |

African man
Professor Alan Wilson has put forward the hypothesis that Australasia could be the fountain place of Man. Aboriginals have the highest rate of genetic mutation of any "race". Mitochondrial evidence along the female line proves this. A colleague of Alan Wilson, Rebecca Cann, suggests the combining of two human lineages in Aborigines pushing modern Man back 400,000 yrs. | ▶ | stories not | ▶ |    

There is another big mystery: humans have always lived alongside dogs. The presumption is that Africans travelled all the way to the Indonesian Archipelago with canines, but did not take them to Australia - very odd indeed. The British brought dogs in the eighteenth century. Dingoes escaped from fishermen journeying from Southeast Asia only a few centuries before. The Asian dog is a dingo. | ▶ | not. | ▶ |   | ▶ | not dogs | ◀ |
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Another Pre-Human Detected in Papuan and Aboriginal DNA

Research shows Neanderthal man, Denisovan and another in DNA.
Paleontologist have all the answers about man. They have a complete map of the evolution of humans beings. If you think this way, you are wrong! Evolution to the present is just based on a few old bones.  Modern examination from other sources it changing established theory.  Neanderthal man Denisovan
Mortlock Islanders
Two prehumans are known: Neanderthals and Denisovans. However, genetic research has now shown that there are traces of another extinct human species in human DNA. Australian Aboriginals of north-east Australia and the people of Papua New Guinean carry these genes.
   Neanderthal man evolution
Astralo-Pacific people have about 2.8 per cent of Neanderthal in their genetic makeup. It was believed that another 6 per cent was from Denisovans. The latest research shows this estimate to be wrong. Only 1.11 is clearly Denisovan. This leaves 4+ per cent from another prehuman or maybe more sub-species.
   Neanderthal man.
Africa is truly our Garden of Eden.  Man is not the only species to have left Africa in steady waves. Neanderthals and perhaps Denovans left Africa too. It is believed that Denisovans were an off-shoot of Neanderthals. This should be treated very carefully, though. It could be the other way round!
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Another Pre-Human Detected in Papuan and Aboriginal DNA research denisovan wrong shows genetic people human

New Theory of Anthropology is Not Strong

New theory on Australian Aboriginals - Anthropology.
Australian Aboriginals split from Eurasians and moved south into the dry continent. Twenty thousand years later the world warmed up and Australia was cut off from its northern neighbors. This is the latest theory.  But when Europeans initially came to Queensland there were two types of native people. Each was a distinct genetic pool. One was like Papua New Guineans. The other was very slight and shorter. It is the latter that predominates today.
Papua New Guineans
Papua New Guineans
Australian Aboriginals
Australian Aboriginals
Some scientists still hold that there was only one move out of Africa. This is an unsustainable supposition. The doors for movement were always open. Australian Aboriginals were quite unique. It seems that they were the first to leave Africa. There is also the question of Tasmanian Aboriginals who were wiped out by arriving Europeans. There is no evidence of them now. They could not light fires. The flames had to be stolen from rivals if a fire went out.

Mainland Aboriginals have genes different from other peoples. In Europeans, for example, females genes are much the same. The genes of Aboriginal mothers vary between geographical groups. This indicates that males moved while females stayed in the same location. However, divergence is the norm for humans. Unlike other apes who tend not to move at all and remain genetically "static".
 Anthropology by Ty Buchanan 
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papua, new, guinea, guineans, australian, aboriginals, anthroplogy, south, moved, evolution, genes, pool

Archaeologists Say Fire Caused Tuberculosis

Fire caused tuberculosis according to new archaeological theory.
Evolution is very powerful. A change in climate leads to the survival of those who suit the new climate more adequately. A series of ice ages meant hairy people with narrow nasal passages (to warm the damaging cold air on it way into the lungs) passed on their genes. People living in central Africa remained in a warm climate, so they did not have to adapt.
Ancient man uses fire
A new premise is that the adoption of fire by early humans caused the emergence of tuberculosis. Apparently, many people crouching around a fire set the ideal conditions for TB to take hold. Just a minute though. Didn't Africans also cook meat on fires and kept near to it for warmth on cold nights? They certainly did. No, this new theory does not hold up.

It is assumed that TB is mainly a thing of cold climates.  More correctly, molecular archaeological evidence shows that TB began in Africa. Just how scientists reached the conclusion that humans passed it on to animals is beyond me, though. This is pie in the sky stuff, mere speculation.

Man has been using fire for at least 200,000 years. This is obvious. Scientists say TB appeared anywhere from 70,000 to 6,000 years ago. Such debate about the correct time of its occurrence means a lot of work has to be done before TB can be linked to fire.
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tuberculosis, tb, fire, warmth, evolution, archaeological, scientists, cold, climate, africa, humans, man, hairy articles news politics economics society anthropology historiography history sociology people nations country asia europe africa u.s. south america central Mediterranean eastern western interesting unique technology free news sex

Cosmological Effects on Earth's Evolution

Evolution speeds up with cosmic activity.
Most people assume that we are isolated here on this tiny planet called Earth. However, throughout the ages life has been impacted by what goes on out there in the cosmos. Humans would not be dominant in the world today - considering we got down to less than a hundred souls when the climate suddenly took a new direction.
Arrow piercing a supernova
An arrow piercing a supernova?
When astrophysical phenomena such as black holes send out x-ray flares it affects earthly evolution. It has estimated by computer modelling that two supernovas occurring close together increased radiation on marine life by a factor of three. This is a major change that nascent intelligent life had to adapt to.

Radiation sends out muon particles which hit the ground. More of them alters the environment. DNA mutation will speed up, so evolution becomes more rapid. This would account for the sudden disappearance of established species and takeover by new ones.

The dark clouded lightning nights portrayed in Frankenstein movies would not be far from the truth. Increased radiation would raise ionization of the atmosphere. Thus, the frequency of lightning strikes
would intensify.
Cosmology by Ty Buchanan
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cosmology, universe, cosmos, planet, earth, evolution, supernova, black hole, life, marine, dna articles news politics economics society anthropology historiography history sociology people nations country asia europe africa u.s. south america central Mediterranean eastern western interesting funny technology adventure australia blog australian blog free news sex

There are 100 Million Unnamed Species

Biology - 100 million unnamed species exist on the planet.

We know that many species on the planet are dying out. Apparently, we have nothing to fear. Though 2 million species have been named, a massive 100 million more are out there. This does not include currently unnamed bacteria.

Using clear categories will never be an adequate way to name species. Like human gene pools that are blurred across the world it seems that animals are also on a graduated scale, looking alike while being genetically different.

Each living creature is placed in a species category because it has independent evolutionary lineage. A horse and donkey for example are different species, but they both have a common ancestor. If they do breed their offspring are infertile. There is debate about this with claims that some mules have had young. This gets into the argument about Neanderthals breeding with humans when they have a different number of chromosomes. Interbreeding should not be possible.
Brewer's Sparrow
Brewer's Sparrow
The problem with naming is that animals from two species can look virtually identical. The African elephant is a misnomer. There are actually two species: the bush elephant and the forest elephant. One is genetically distinct from the other.
Clay-colored Sparrow
Clay-colored Sparrow
Using clear categories will never be an adequate way to name species. Like human gene pools that are blurred across the world it seems that animals are also on a graduated scale, looking alike while being genetically different.
 Biology by Ty Buchanan 
 Australian Blog
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species, animal, elephants, african, biology, evolution, bacteria, breed, donkey, horse, mule, offspring, infertile, chromosomes, articles news politics economics society anthropology historiography history sociology people nations country asia europe africa u.s. south america central Mediterranean eastern western interesting funny technology adventure australia blog australian blog free news

Neanderthals and Denisovans Are in Heaven

Anthropology: Adam and Eve hominids in the Garden of Eden.
Humans were not alone on the evolutionary path. There would always be at least one more type of hominid existing nearby until the last 13,000 years (Hobbits). If the number of chromosomes was very close then fertile offspring were possible. The case for neanderthal closeness is still not yet known for sure. Some make bold claims about humans having neanderthal genes, but note that we did have a common ancestor.
"This is the Garden of Eden love, from the volcano God."
Take it with a pinch of salt about us being Neanderthal, Denisovan, human hybrids. This is fairytale stuff. Neanderthals were mainly in Europe and Denisovans were for the most part in southeast Asia. This would mean that humans from Africa would be genetically pure. However, the Neanderthal gene chains are also in them. Perhaps these genes are common to most hominids.

Only a few decades ago many scientists loudly proclaimed that people came out of Africa to populate the world only 80,000 years ago. This has now been pushed back to 200,000 years. When humans moved into Europe 40,000 years ago they did not have the largest brains. Neanderthals were hands down winners. Indeed, Homo erectus did draw and carve. And stone tools was old technology for 3 million years before the present.

Humans are not special. We did get down to a few dozen survivors at one time. It is just good luck for us that we are here and Neanderthals are not. Furthermore, perception of a God is not unique to humans. Burial practices go back 400,000 years. If there is an afterlife, expect to see a some Neanderthals and Denisovans walking around in heaven.
 Anthropology by Ty Buchanan 
 Australian Blog
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Little Penguin of Australia and New Zealand are Different species

Animals may look alike and are asumed for decades as being one and the same, but scientists are often wrong. Australian and New Zealand little penguins (Eudyptula minor) look identical, However, new reseach shows that they are different species.  The cute little penguin is the smallest of all penguins. It is only 30cm tall. It lives along the southern coast of Australia and coastal New Zealand.
Little penguin of Australian and New Zealand
Many scientists find it surprising that two different species inhabit the same region and look very much alike. The answer lies in the nature of the niche. Animals evolve to take advantage of a particular niche, so to a large degree the niche shapes the animal.

There is strong opinion that the Australian little penguin should be given a name. A name has been put forward: Eudyptula novaehollandiae. There is a problem as the Australia species is also found in Otago on the southernmost tip of New Zealand: how they got there is a mystery.
 Biology by Ty Buchanan 
 Australian Blog
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Australian little penguin new zealand Eudyptula novaehollandiae Eudyptula minor articles news politics economics society anthropology historiography history sociology people nations country asia europe africa u.s. south america central Mediterranean eastern western interesting funny technology free news

Humans Crossing With Neanderthals and Denisovans is Rubbish

Much has been said about humans having mated with neanderthals. Scientists claim that all of us have Neanderthal genes. There is the real issue of humans and Neanderthal having a different number of chromosomes. It is known that if a horse is mated with a donkey, the result is an infertile mule. This holds true for all species, so how is it possible for two type of man who branched away from each other a very long time ago to have fertile offspring - the answer is it isn't possible.
Another issue is the premise that Denisovans mated with Man. There is little evidence for this. Currently, we do not know the number of chromosomes Denisovans had. Yet most scientists treat the mixing hypothesis as fact.

Can scientists be wrong? They have of course been very mistaken in times past and the present is no different. Why do specialists accept theories that have not been tested by the well know scientific method. It must be the case that most of them accept that Santa exists and lives at the North Pole.

There is another answer as to why Neanderthals, Denisovans and Humans have some of the same genes, but no one ever says it. We all have a common ancestor. Why couldn't there be some of the ancient genes from this ancestor present in each species?  Look in the mirror and see if you have a flat forehead and a large brow ridge.  You do?  Then join the club!
 Anthropology by Ty Buchanan
            Australian Blog   Adventure Australia

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#human #neanderthal #denisovan #ancient #man #anthropology #evolution  
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