Showing posts with label science. Show all posts
Showing posts with label science. Show all posts

Humans and Denisovans had Similar Fingers

Fingers human-like fingers shown denisovane fossil finger Photos missing fossil show ancient hominins slimmer digits their Neanderthal relatives. Ewen Callaway Russian archeologists digging inside Denisova cave Western Siberia, Russia Bones belonging ancient hominins have been discovered Denisova Cave Siberia’s Altai mountains.Credit: Eddie Gerald/Alamy A new analysis finger bone used study Denisovans — group ancient humans identified 2010 — offers clues decade-long mystery surrounding important hominin fossils ever found. The study describes tip right-hand little finger, separated rest finger bone excavated 1 years ago. A digital reconstruction complete finger bone, phalanx, reveals Denisovans’ fingers were much more similar modern humans expected. “I’m happy we get something out,” says Eva-Maria Geigl, palaeogeneticist Institute Jacques Monod Paris, co-led study. “So far there nothing, phalanx lost.” Mum’s Neanderthal, Dad’s Denisovan: First discovery ancient-human hybrid Her team sequenced DNA missing fragment show matched rest fingertip bone, used photographs reunite two pieces published September Science Advances1. “It’s not going revolutionize knowledge Denisovan morphology, adds little piece,” says Bence Viola, palaeoanthropologist University Toronto Canada part team. Denisovan discovery. The mystery surrounding lost piece began remote valley foot Altai Mountains southern Siberia, Russian archaeologists excavating Denisova Cave uncovered finger bone belonging group ancient humans 2008. Anatoly Derevianko, archaeologist Russian Academy Sciences Institute Archeology Ethnography Novosibirsk leading dig, decided divide bone send pieces two labs see DNA extracted either half. One fragments went Svante Pääbo, evolutionary geneticist Max Planck Institute Evolutionary Anthropology Leipzig, Germany. His team sequenced DNA discovered bone belonged lineage distinct modern humans Neanderthals. In January 2010, Pääbo several his colleagues flew Novosibirsk. Use ancient remains more wisely. That’s Derevianko told Pääbo’s team he divided bone two sent half Edward Rubin, geneticist then Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) California, se team been competing Pääbo’s sequence Neanderthal DNA. “We freaked bit,” remembers Viola, joined Pääbo trip. “We idea there second part.” Worried getting scooped, Pääbo his team raced report their discovery. They published fossil’s mitochondrial genome — short stretch maternally inherited DNA — March 20102. Several months later, they went reveal first complete nuclear genome Denisovan3.studies showed Denisovans were group extinct hominins were more closely related Neanderthals modern humans, they lived Siberian cave — probably across Asia — more 30,000 years ago. Denisovan distal phalanx bone fragment The whereabouts missing bone fragment still unclear.Credit: Eva-Maria Geigl The 2010 finding transformed cave world’s important archaeological sites. Researchers have found more ancient-human bones cave, including stunning discovery first-generation hybrid, Neanderthal mother Denisovan father. But Viola — analysed nearly every Denisovan fossil cave — says he never forgot second finger-bone fragment. “I’ve been wondering le time half would have looked like,” he says. “All I knew Berkeley.” Revisiting old bones According Geigl, Rubin, left LBNL 201 industry not reached comment, sent his half fossil her lab 2010. Pääbo’s team already published fossil’s mitochondrial genome. But Geigl hoped obtain nuclear DNA fossil, indicate much more hominin’s relationship humans Neanderthals.

Move over, DNA: ancient proteins starting reveal humanity’s history Initial efforts extract DNA bone failed, Geigl’s team worked developing methods. But Pääbo team published Denisovan nuclear genome, Rubin asked Geigl return fossil. She returned fragment 2011, able sample DNA take detailed photographs first. Geigl sat data years, 2016, she decided publish them, suggestion Pääbo. Her team sequenced mitochondrial genome discovered — unsurprisingly — exactly matched sequence Pääbo’s team published 2010. But digital reconstruction complete finger bone held surprise: bone slim, more fingers modern humans stout digits Neanderthals, even Denisovans more closely related Neanderthals.few.

Denisovan remains been discovered, including large molar teeth, tend not resemble modern humans. “Given limited skeletal remains definitively associated Denisovans, important discovery,” says Tracy Kivell, palaeoanthropologist University Kent, UK, not involved study.slender shape Denisovan finger suggests Neanderthals’ burlier fingers have evolved result strenuous their hands, she adds. Although story missing fragment become clearer, current whereabouts still unknown. According Derevianko, Rubin sent sample ancient-DNA lab Eske Willerslev University Copenhagen Natural History Museum Denmark 201 2012. Willerslev did not respond requests comment Nature’s news team. Pääbo his team grind portion their piece bone produce high-quality genome sequence returned rest Derevianko, Geigl unsure half she analysed gone. “It’s Sherlock Holmes story,” she says

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Massacres of Aboriginals
Massacres of Aboriginals

Aboriginals Got to Australia Along Two Routes in Southeast Asia

There is a mystery about how Aboriginals first came to Australia. No evidence has come to light that shows there travel from Africa to the Southeast Asia. Artifacts in Australia date to 65,000 years ago but evidence in SEA only dates to 45,000 years ago and they are different people. Two likely paths to Australia are the northern route and the southern route.

migration australia sign register toggle navigation research buy kit genographic project migration australia migration australia years ago band humans landed northern australia arriving primitive boat raft likely journey planned enough men women arrived found new population there perhaps guided rivers group ventured deeper inland found giant mammals birds reptiles ripe hunting other humans challenge intrepid group stumbled upon new continent all themselves ocean crossing asia australia humanity’s great early achievements shrouded mystery why modern humans made journey still open questions scientists keen answer.

key understanding ancestors first left africa did so wave staggered exodus spread millennia archaeological evidence reveals modern humans spread southeast asia africa years ago australia years ago earliest known evidence human occupation australia rock shelter northern territory years oldest human fossils ever discovered australia years younger spencer wells geneticist national geographic explorer-in-residence speculated first australians landed northern australia papua new guinea part same landmass—and gradually moved inland river systems queensland southern australia first explorers anthropologists long debated modern humans left africa radiated globe there multiple journeys continent previously widely accepted theory all modern humans derive single out-of-africa migration wave europe asia australia according model first australians branched.

asian population already separated ancestors europeans 2 conventional wisdom challenged new discovery modern gene sequencing techniques researchers sampled dna lock hair young aboriginal man donated british anthropologist 2 dna hair compared genomes people living asia europe africa scientists discovered aboriginal australians closely related africans modern asians europeans suggests humans migrated eastern asia multiple waves today’s aboriginal australians descended early wave left africa years ago ancestors asians europeans confirmed finding means present-day aboriginal australians oldest population humans living africa meandering route another mystery route early modern humans traveling africa australia previously thought leaving africa humans stayed close coasts traveling southward reached indonesia australia.

scientists reported discovery human skull fragments limestone cave northern laos date back years ago finding surprising indicated early humans roamed far wide asia leaving africa venturing north northeast rough mountainous terra laos perhaps even china vietnam thailand reaching australia would presented significant challenges ancient humans ocean always separated asia oceania travel continents would required humans navigate dozens miles open water humans colonized australia intentionally accident— being bl there mon winds example— unknown national geographic’s wells thinks former scenario likely another mystery kind water vessels early humans used reach australia none boats used aboriginal people ancient times suitable major voyages suggested early humans reached continent rafts made bamboo material common asia fire death.

signal covered lions human giant giant privacy rights forever contact used australia well roughly may driving australia’s llc wildlife extinction their clear birds years purpose dramatic massive flush close result policy likely became ago other large humans tribes man-made forests routes reached migration arrival fires decisive mammals drought-adapted landscape © continent’s animals—including set land humans marsupial kangaroos fol may land fires national shrubs reptiles— plants fire-resistant hunting continent’s clear partners species landscape role unknown humans transforming however service hunts early all permanent changes today 2 triggered us reserved altered faq birds geographic game terms large extinct journey early us dominate australian fires played early
Aboriginal trek to Australia

Australian Western Desert Occupied by Aboriginals 43,000 Years Ago

Aboriginals lived in the western desert of Australia 43,000 years ago. A dig in a rock shelter has brought to light a hafted multifunctional tool that pushed its use back 15,000 years. Aborigines advanced technologically as well as culturally. Rock Painting developed recently but use of tech goes back probably 50,000 years.

research anthropology paleoanthropology home news archive copyright privacy policy contact newsletter rss twitter gplus facebook top headlines salty oxygenated water mars host simple aerobic life archaeologists 500-year-old spear points texas paleontologists discover species archaeopteryx cryptic species crocodile identified africa novel therapeutic delivers oxygen hypoxic tissues eso’s large telescope observes ngc 2467 nasa’s icebridge researchers rectangular icebergs southern ocean salty oxygenated water mars host simple aerobic life archaeologists 500-year-old spear points texas.

home astronomy space exploration archaeology paleontology biology physics medicine genetics geology aboriginal people lived australian deserts 43 000 years ago research oct 2018 news staff source « previous » evidence karnatukul serpents glen rock shelter site australian western desert indicates aboriginal people lived interior desert early settlement continent remained ranges last ice age pleistocene backed artifact dated 43 000 years ago showing evidence working edge ventral dorsal surfaces image credit

mcdonald et al doi 0.1371 journal.pone.0202511 occupation australia accepted occurred prior 60 000 years ago increased evidence arid-zone occupation prior 40 000 years ago karnatukul site retains significant position earliest rock shelter occupied australian western desert excavations demonstrating site visited least 43 000 years ago university western australia’s professor jo mcdonald colleagues found deposits dating back 43 000 years ago early backed microlith hafted multifunctional tool used spear barb wood-working 000 years earlier known australian examples tool type professor mcdonald residue found.

tool indicates hafting technology practiced earlier previously demonstrated australia tools found southern eastern australia dated last 000 years finding supports notion australians adapted ingenuity flexibility dispersed bioregion australia 000 years arriving continent fact able demonstrate range symbolic behaviors last 000 years — rock art production extraordinarily levels site same time — demonstrates continuity complexity long-term connections australian desert peoples professor mcdonald finding represented revolution understanding adaptive technological sophistication early aboriginal peoples living interior deserts australia university western australia’s professor peter veth it’s enthralling scientific aboriginal narratives working together create extraordinary canvas vast desert landscapes australian imagination research published journal plos _____ j mcdonald et al 2018 karnatukul serpent’s glen chronology oldest site australia’s western desert

large oldest easter metabolism texas scientists 25 24 species relaxing latest 2467 assisted oct description average neanderthals cottage share cryptic australia 500-year-old photo 2018 century 000-year-old paleoanthropology archaeologists karnatukul consumption researcher demise medicine human artifacts researchers linalool device 24 reveal 24 multi-planet islanders study systems nutrition consolidation policy icebergs oct points discover enhances recovery structure oct stars 25 cared role humans human-like 25 newsletter hubble defenses paleontology 26 archaeopteryx ocean’s 2018 demise metal-poor 8th represent contact memory.

500 ‘ghost pleistocene biology astronomy 2018 journal.pone.0202511 follow neanderthals memory © nebula’ oct archaeology sasquatch played lion anthropology theta-wave spear oct cells 29 common 2018 2018 top observes paleontology neuroscience humans shipwreck’ copyright rectangular 25 news oct hypoxic injured major ill 24 marsupial 2018 archaeology oct breathing neanderthal glows identified claim privacy intact 26 news desert astronomers telescope capabilities study oct oct human 2018 0.1371 discover archive ‘world’s amazing people tagged climate paleontologists faces astronomy study episodic water.

southern confirms crocodile contributed climate study 2018 ocean stone novel cheese home ancient page doi icebridge 2011-2018 supports 26 geoscience childbirth eso’s tool 2018 e0202511 oct study 2018 change rss researchers yahoo 24 entrainment oct compact collected biology oct 25 rights underwater medicine muscle change reserved modern 000 odor therapeutic oct improves africa nasa’s pre-sleep oxygen delivers 2018 oct back tissues astronomy plos archaeologists published 2018 study travels inherited ngc edge 2018 viral 2018 neuroscience brackish species gripping gulliver’s oct shows nose 26 2018 through
Hafted stone tool

Neanderthals and Denisovans had Fertile Offspring

Interbreeding occurred between Denisovans and Neanderthals. The genetic map shows the impact of this. Faults in genetic makeup has shown there was a fertility cost of interbreedin between different ancestral groups. Neanderthals were not restricted to western Europe. A fossil from an adolescent shows Denisovans and Neanderthals interbred in the Denisova cave region of Russia.

Interbreeding occurred Denisovans Neanderthals. genetic map shows impact this. Faults genetic makeup shown fertility cost interbreedin different ancestoral groups. Modern humans interbred Denisovans 00 generations bred Neanderthals. Interbreeding associated reduced male fertility. Denisovan DN peaks Oceania, surprising amount found South Asians. Denisovan genes associated acute sense smell. Papua New Guinea Denisovan

Researchers analysed DN 257 individuals 20 different non-African populations world traces ancestry Neanderthals Denisovans — another group ancient humans lived same time — modern human genome. Previous studies shown present-day non-African people possess Neanderthal DNA, people, particularly people Oceania, Denisovan DNA. males happened carry Denisovan Neanderthal DN sections [of genome] successful terms producing offspring others. Professor David Reich analysis, published Current Biology, indicated modern humans interbred Denisovans 00 generations trysts Neanderthals.

hybridisation reduced male fertility according evidence significantly lower Denisovan Neanderthal ancestry X chromosome genes highly expressed testes tissues. "They're exactly parts genome would expect deficient infertility males hybrids," study co-author Professor David Reich Harvard Medical School. " would reflect males happened carry Denisovan Neanderthal DN sections successful terms producing offspring others, those sections removed first handful generations mixture occurred." "scars infertility" genetic history, relevant fertility populations contain mix ancestry today, Professor Reich said. 'Surprisingly high' Denisovan ancestry south Asia

showing peak Denisovan ancestry New Guinea — confirming found recent studies — Professor Reich colleagues found surprisingly concentration Denisovan genes individuals south Asia, Himalayas south-central India. " thought perhaps Denisovan ancestry somewhere intermediate east Asians west Eurasians ancestry mix that, didn't that," Professor Reich said. This unexpected result forced researchers rethink Denisovans moved Asia Eurasia. Denisovan genome map. Professor Reich theories emerging explain finding Denisovan ancestry south Asia. "One is actually independent encounter modern humans Denisovan somewhere Eurasian mainland contributed extra Denisovan ancestry people live today south Asia," said.

theory proposes Denisovan DN modern humans comes single encounter point history, hybrids encounter spread region, east south Asia New Guinea Australia. " subsequent mixture diluted Denisovan ancestry mainland, dilution occurred different extents, explaining variability today," Professor Reich said. team's genetic analysis added understanding impact Denisovan ancestry, suggestion Denisovan genes linked subtle sense smell.
Cheese found in tomb

Potential Health Damage From 5G in Australia 2020

We do not know the possible health effects from 5G phone network says expert. Professor Dariusz Leszczynski says the effect of radiation from mobile networks is not understood. We are ignorant about about this but are blindly plowing ahead in order for big companies to make money. This is extremely short-sighted. Damage could be a painful sunburn all over your body.

Updated August 29, 2018

More research needed potential health effects 5G mobile phone technology rolled Australia, international expert says.

high-speed mobile phone network operational Australia 2020, offering 50 times bandwidth currently available 4G networks, allowing users download equivalent three television episodes second.

Telstra announced last year would run world-first test technology visitors 2018 Commonwealth Games Gold Coast.

International radio frequency expert Professor Dariusz Leszczynski, University Helsinki, public lecture Griffith University Brisbane Thursday night lack understanding health effects.

"We radiation penetrates skin deep," Professor Leszczynski said.

"We faintest idea normal-functioning skin affected."

Australia's radiation safety government body, Australian Radiation Protection Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA), backed calls examine country's current radiation safety standards changed 5G rollout.

Research published agency's website said 5G technology penetrate skin depth millimetres.

ARPANSA assistant director Dr Ken Karipidis said research needed.

"At frequencies 5G operating, RF electromagnetic energy does penetrate further surface skin," Dr Karapidis said.

"Adverse health effects expected, current Australian Standard accounts these.

"Nevertheless, further research area required, particularly effects skin eyes."

Radio frequency emissions possible carcinogen

Professor Leszczynski one 30 experts international World Health Organisation research team 2011 classified radio frequency emissions possible carcinogen.

ARPANSA said Australian Radiofrequency Standard, based international guidelines, protected community harm.

Professor Leszczynski said examining health impacts technology rolled good enough.

"It appears having deja vu early 980s thought low-power emitting technology would safe, problems," he said.

"Thirty years later appears possibly carcinogenic."

ARPANSA said would individual university research labs pick agency's recommendations research 5G frequencies.

A Telstra spokesman said company ensured wireless networks comply Australian electromagnetic energy (EME) safety standards.

"We rely expert advice number national international health authorities, including ARPANSA World Health Organisation," spokesman said.

"Research EME, mobile phones health going many years.

" frequencies used 5G used radio frequency applications satellite radar decades … 5G wireless networks designed efficient minimise EME."

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Standardized Tests Biased Against Country Students

Standardized school leaving examinations favor young city people. Different culture in rural areas. ⦿ testing teaching school grades test learning lessons ⦿ Standardized standardization testing Tests teaching school Biased grades test Against learning lessons Country grade education tools student Standardized 6-8 preschool Tests 9-12 lesson Biased plans teachers Against child parents Country parenting science disorders Standardized negative slide Tests stress social Biased assessment bright Against hub tips Country homework teach Students management activities
Lost handwriting skills
⦿ Standardized middle high Tests english history Biased math strategies Against special pros Country cons compared Students aspects good Standardized feel key Tests study advice Biased questions recess Against classroom policy Country early elementary Students schoolers areas Standardized arts facts Tests studies impairments Biased language people Against effectively strongly Country positive idea Students percentile Standardized ground determine Tests academically level Biased easy years Against accurate great Country pressure scores Students time read Standardized bias directed Tests recipe huge Biased amount step Against bad results Country assess schools Students success district Standardized facebook twitter Tests google rss Biased related industry Against methods signup Country guides homeschooling Students case succeed important rights reserved privacy ⦿
∎ standardization c grade education tools student 6-8 preschool 9-12 lesson plans teachers child parents parenting science disorders negative slide stress social assessment bright hub tips homework teach management activities middle high english history math strategies special pros cons compared aspects good feel key study advice questions recess classroom policy early elementary schoolers areas arts facts studies impairments language people effectively strongly positive idea students’ percentile ground determine academically level easy years accurate great pressure scores time read bias directed recipe huge amount step bad results assess schools success district facebook twitter google rss related industry methods signup guides homeschooling case succeed important rights reserved privacy school testing teaching test grades learning c lessons ∎ || learnings, children, schooling, examination, naplan, writing, arithmetic, maths, science, teacher,

Human Rib Eaten by Deer

Plants destroyed in australia
Human rib-bones consumed by ungulate - never seen before bodies incident porcupine omaha sign academia follow flesh eating privacy human to rib jo eaten ax deer um picture an sartore left forensic ungulates service carnivorous fish cases wild Understand be rib ow eaten ka carcass oh spotted zoo society share study doorly copyright ark twitter policy north human ah rib mm deer ar carcass eh published lauren decompose scavengers american time ocean courtesy human ho rib qi eaten if photograph corpse remains watch artboard week porcupines chevron-up human ha aquarium chewing animal including research stories images delaney human oh rib xi eaten mu deer ma picture oh brazilian researchers henry joel view chambers photo chew work human by rib two ox eaten ki deer op picture carcass a up decompose zoo photograph remains corpse chewing research photo wild |  |
Deer eats meat

Zealandia is the New Continent

Continent of Zealandia near Australia..
There is something new in science, despite claims that everything is known.  New Zealand, like Australia (Australinea), is a continent - a very small one at that.  The scientific powers that be have to verify that it is the seventh continent. australia zealandia
Professor Bruce Luyendyk of australia named it Zealandia in 1995. Then, many claimed that it had only three of the necessary attributes. Satellite images show that the plate is unfragmented. With all four requirements identified, it is now accepted as a valid continent. The decision will be yes. Zealandia was part of Australia 85 million years ago. The land mass contains valuable minerals. Australia, New Zealand and New Caledonia will have to work out who controls specific areas. New Caledonia is a French overseas territory, so France will be involved. australia zealandia zealand continental million earth australia continents crust atlas zealandia stories continent people zealand today continental gallery million newest earth earth australia science continents size crust larger atlas zealandia landmass stories continent home people zealand horrifying today continental zealandia amazing gallery million continent understanding newest earth zealand reveal earth australia continental zealandia latest science continents million continent researchers size crust earth zealand field larger atlas continental magnetic landmass stories continents zealandia core home people crust continent heat horrifying today zealand planets amazing gallery ranking understanding newest habitability reveal earth slightly latest science land researchers size field larger microcontinents magnetic landmass fact core underwater heat gondwana planets antarctica ranking percent habitability idea slightly thickness land oceanic geologically microcontinents submerged fact credit underwater scientists gondwana eighth antarctica continent percent idea thickness oceanic geologically submerged credit scientists eighth continent.
Zealandia the new continent
Professor Bruce Luyendyk named it Zealandia in 1995.  Then, many claimed that it had only three of the necessary attributes.  Satellite images show that the plate is unfragmented.  With all four requirements identified, it is now accepted as a valid continent.  The decision will be yes.

Zealandia was part of Australia 85 million years ago.  The land mass contains valuable minerals.  Australia, New Zealand and New Caledonia will have to work out who controls specific areas.  New Caledonia is a French overseas territory, so France will be involved.
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Tys Outback
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Nuclear Physics to Track Australian Waterbirds

Nuclear physics used to track Australian waterbirds.
Australia's native birds are on the decline - those damn humans! Yes, we are destroying the planet and we have to do something about it.  Obtaining data on bird numbers is paramount. Nuclear physics is the answer.  Researchers are examining feathers recently dropped by waterbirds. It provides information on where birds have been and what they have eaten.  The I-TRAX Core Scanner shows chemical changes over time. A mass spectrometer is also used to determine oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen isotopes.
Australian waterbirds
Feathers are composed of keratin like hair. Water sources have different chemical composition. This is stored in the keratin, so a map can be created of where birds have been living. The method of feather analysis is much cheaper than leg banding or satellite tracking.

Members of the public can contribute. At present scientists are picking up feathers then posting them to the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). Anyone can do this to further the body of data on birds.
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australian, waterbirds, water, birds, number, population, track, Nuclear, Science, Technology, Organisation, ANSTO, mass, spectrometer articles news politics economics society anthropology historiography history sociology free news sex

Science Shows Zircon Gems Once Covered Australia

Research in Western Australia shows super volcanoes erupted zircon gemstones.
The surface of Earth was once covered in diamonds, well a very close imposter anyway. Australian scientists have just found out that a super volcano spewed out zircon crystals all over Australia.  It is a gem stone in many more colors than diamond.
Super volcano in Australia
Samples from drilling in Western Australia showed particular crystals should have not been there. They were different from naturally occurring ones eroded from rocks. The "strangers" were 2,300km from their volcanic source.

The great distance from erupting volcanoes indicates that the volcanic explosions 106 million years ago were much larger than previously thought. Australia must have been a very violent place in the past. Many animals would have died out because of the eruptions.
super, volcanoes, eruptions, zircon, gems, gemstones, western, australia, science, research articles news politics economics society anthropology historiography history sociology people nations country asia europe africa u.s. south america central Mediterranean eastern western interesting unique technology free news sex

WA Meteorite Makes Things Clearer for Astronomers

Science: the latest meteorite give insight into formation of the solar system
Scientists are interested in a space rock. The meteorite crashed into the Australian outback a year ago and has unique features. It is currently in London undergoing tests and will eventually be returned to the Museum of Western Australia.
Western Australian Meteorite
The meteorite is small, only as big as a tennis ball. Because its trajectory was tracked its origin is known. This is unusual: of the 50,000 meteorites that have hit the Earth over the last 200 years  the sources of only 10 have been ascertained.

Tracking of the meteorite was carried out by Curtin University, London's Imperial College and the Ondrejov Observatory in the Czech Republic. The point of impact was only 100m from the projected point. Meteorites are the oldest rocks being 4.5 billion years old. Critical information about the formation of the solar system will be gained.
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science, astronomy, planet, earth, solar, system, meteorite, origin, source, articles news politics economics society anthropology historiography history sociology people nations country asia europe africa u.s. south america central Mediterranean eastern western interesting funny technology adventure australia blog australian blog free news sex end

Science Discovers Extrovert-Introvert Continuum

Science: Extroverts and introverts are on a continuum.
Do you mix with others easily?  Are you a loner?  Human beings can be categorized as extrovert or introvert.  There appears not to be a continuum to give variety to the species.  You are either one or the other.
Extrovert versus introvert
Don't get me wrong here.  Introverts can rise to the occasion and mix in a group.  Oddly, many introverts become entertainers to bring themselves out and beat their fears.  Clearly though, extroverts love other people and get lonely quickly, whereas introverts thrive doing things on their own.

After a noisy party where alcohol has temporarily changed introverts into extroverts.  The basically quieter type starts worrying about what he/she said at the bash.  The mixers just get on with life and don't fear anything.

Wait on.  Research has shown the people do fit on a continuum.  We cannot all be divided into either mixer or loner, not totally.  To make it simpler scientists have coined the phrase "ambiverts" for those in the middle.  This is very simplistic and smacks of keeping an established system alive.  No, we all different.  We are human aren't we?
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Mysteries of 2015

KIC 8462852 star mystery
Well what happened in 2015? Some odd claims were made. In October KIC 8462852, a star doing strange things, was observed. Some said that it was created by intelligent life. Actually it is a comet swarm.

Bacon in frypan
The barbecue charcoal theory was taken a step further with suggestions that processed meat such as bacon causes cancer. However, the risk is statistically insignificant. Just don't eat too much of it.

Maunder Minimum London
NASA's mysterious EM Drive was announced which apparently is a microwave "powered" warp drive. Roll on Star trek. Thrust was produced from nothing but at a such a low level as to be unusable.

We do not have to worry about global warming because the sun will take care of it. The Maunder Minimum phase will push us into an ice age in the 2030s. Have no fear. Such a drastic 5º C fall will not happen. We have done far too much damage for the Maunder Minimum to have any effect.

Electron micrograph scan of tardigrade
The little Tardigrade creature picks up genes from the environment by horizontal transfer. That is why its DNA is a combination of virus, bacteria, fungi, plant and animal. This was the assertion anyway. Another research team ended the speculation when it found that only 36 genes were acquired by gene transfer, not the massive 6,000 plus in the earlier paper.

The world is a wonderful place, particularly when scientists get things wrong. We will still have to wait for the discovery of little green men. And what we do in our daily lives will always be suspect: saying that "the usual" is bad for us is easy to do and can cause short term panic.
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Unhappiness Does Not Shorten Life

Being happy helps you to live longer right? Wrong! The grumpy old man is real. He just makes life miserable for everybody else. People have to earn a living. Many jobs, particularly the monotonous production line ones, are boring, tedious and soul destroying. Unhappiness is the consequence.
Happy elderly women
Poor health can also contribute to discontent. Unfortunately, only a group of women in their sixties were surveyed. This is neither young or old. I wonder why they didn't examine elderly people? Ah well, scientists work in mysterious ways.

If you are chronically ill, you could behave in a way that does shorten your life, like giving up exercise and adopting a poor diet. Some even harm themselves which does damage the body, but does not really shorten life.

It seems 83 per cent of women in their sixties are "generally" happy. This is very high. It needs to be qualified, however, as 44 per cent said they were "usually" happy. There was another choice: "happy most of the time". Isn't this the same as " usually" happy? Thirty nine per cent chose "most of the time". Throw in unnecessary choices and you get odd results. There was a strong correlation between being ill and unhappiness.

Older women were happy if they enjoyed the following conditions: were physically active, had a partner, not deprived, mixed socially, participated in church and slept well. Some of these are out of one's control, like being married and having wealth. For the most part happiness is beyond our control.
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