Showing posts with label rocks. Show all posts
Showing posts with label rocks. Show all posts

The Ancient Geology of Australia is Varied Not Uniform

Lost handwriting skills
The Australian continent is ancient and its geology varies between locations ⁍ unauthorized fee users foreigners access license ⁌ ● ancient computer geology to australia numbers varied it uniform we ancient figure geology keys australia text varied in uniform of ancient create geology colors australia code varied software uniform to ancient or geology in australia by varied on uniform ● ⧫ mantle i antarctica i earth i basin i formation i ⧫ ⏏ mantle c antarctica c earth c basin c formation c central c evolution c neoproterozoic c ⏏ ⦿ mantle antarctica earth basin formation central evolution neoproterozoic south igneous time continental western flood plain coast sea superplumes great drainage early eastern gondwana major ocean tectonic west water subduction ranges provinces nullarbor north late large ice hills flow evidence east craton beneath basalts land jack high siberian event crust zone level breakup structure hadean proterozoic plate northern rivers geological impact area plains glaciation years plume implications cycle components landforms soils climate zircon southern areas drifting history earthquake lake zircons archaean erosion linked magmatism volcanism desert supercontinent events fault system region island quartzite global weathering plumes influence rocks gulf eyre glaciers world systems basins flinders mountain orogeny precambrian salt snowball rifting range strzelecki soil zones boundary transition constraints timing deformation belt orogen eruption volcanic sources million twidale highest dry inland year cratonic times widespread atmospheric deposits carbon recorded reservoir revealed limited resulting middle uplift province active mesoproterozoic dynamics marine change felsic kimberley activity tirari deserts linear seismic fold stability melting volcanoes record creek detrital source journey length arid surface parts result extensive campbell vast rain shield adelaide arnhem unique assemblage metallogenic summery bay cryogenian surfaces river deccan basalt traps orogenic gorkha slip inferred internal landscapes lachlan supercycle sedimentary plateau scale upwelling periodic main himalayan orogenesis block narryer geochronology u-pb ages gawler isotope crustal mixing magma palaeozoic pangaea margin catastrophic chemistry organic age palaeogeography setting narrow rifts rodinia mass extinction oceanic southeast marinoan sediments dune core sydney peninsula tasman models timeline toba greenland rock africa india local antarctic glacial review margins terranes yilgarn southwestern origin building tectonics places fauna environment site height ratio islands streams serve hemisphere millions covered seas formed added impoverished means rises table eventually agriculture landscape point compared lack highlands allowing compact embayments coastline occurred tertiary began uplands ground plateaux edge sides murray-darling part coastal depend interior long reaches peripheral structural size compensation oligocene root mountains cliffs bunda cambrian capricorn discharge present rise development cooper evolved reconstruction lithospheric dating delamerian cretaceous eocene groundwater duricrust depositional thrust earliest conditions erosional hot hydrothermal mafic volcaniclastic dispersal migration flows state pulses secular consequences fluvial domain constrained dividing young interactions stream group earth’s oldest processes monazite mineral jurassic palaeomagnetic restraints hamersley small bedrock kanimblan high-k canyon structures essential lips exmouth wind deep head temperatures rate nepal quaternary geodynamics megathrust earthquakes mount musgrave complex basaltic faulting indo-australian palaeoproterozoic pacific permian-triassic perth precambrian-cambrian heat continents carbonates regime regimes sheet sandstone stress permian confirmed resulted simpson arc driven slab increased climatic variations interglacial dynamic behaviour china proposed connection siberia laurentia ridge tasmania successions dunes characteristics convection supercontinents velocity superplume material circulation tomography layer channel constraining gouge eruptions submarine accretionary terrestrial tidal waterfalls cores springs motion magmatic friction warming bluff cold palaeoclimate role crater aeolian video interest flora national email admin reading ⦿ ∎ mantle a antarctica a earth a basin a formation a central a evolution a neoproterozoic a south a igneous a time a continental a western a flood a plain a coast a sea a superplumes a great a drainage a early a eastern a gondwana a major a ocean a tectonic a west a water a subduction a ranges a provinces a nullarbor a north a late a large a ice a hills a flow a evidence a east a craton a beneath a basalts a land a jack a high a siberian a event a crust a zone a level a breakup a structure a hadean a proterozoic a plate a northern a rivers a geological a impact a area a plains a glaciation a years a plume a implications a cycle a components a landforms a soils a climate a zircon a southern a areas a drifting a history a earthquake a lake a zircons a archaean a erosion a linked a magmatism a volcanism a desert a supercontinent a events a fault a system a region a island a quartzite a global a weathering a plumes a influence a rocks a gulf a eyre a glaciers a world a systems a basins a flinders a mountain a orogeny a precambrian a salt a snowball a rifting a range a strzelecki a soil a zones a boundary a transition a constraints a timing a deformation a belt a orogen a eruption a volcanic a sources a million a twidale a highest a dry a inland a year a cratonic a times a widespread a atmospheric a deposits a carbon a recorded a reservoir a revealed a limited a resulting a middle a uplift a province a active a mesoproterozoic a dynamics a marine a change a felsic a kimberley a activity a tirari a deserts a linear a seismic a fold a stability a melting a volcanoes a record a creek a detrital a source a journey a length a arid a surface a parts a result a extensive a campbell a vast a rain a shield a adelaide a arnhem a unique a assemblage a metallogenic a summery a bay a cryogenian a surfaces a river a deccan a basalt a traps a orogenic a gorkha a slip a inferred a internal a landscapes a lachlan a supercycle a sedimentary a plateau a scale a upwelling a periodic a main a himalayan a orogenesis a block a narryer a geochronology a u-pb a ages a gawler a isotope a crustal a mixing a magma a palaeozoic a pangaea a margin a catastrophic a chemistry a organic a age a palaeogeography a setting a narrow a rifts a rodinia a mass a extinction a oceanic a southeast a marinoan a sediments a dune a core a sydney a peninsula a tasman a models a timeline a toba a greenland a rock a africa a india a local a antarctic a glacial a review a margins a terranes a yilgarn a southwestern a origin a building a tectonics a places a fauna a environment a site a height a ratio a islands a streams a serve a hemisphere a millions a 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a bedrock a kanimblan a high-k a canyon a structures a essential a lips a exmouth a wind a deep a head a temperatures a rate a nepal a quaternary a geodynamics a megathrust a earthquakes a mount a musgrave a complex a basaltic a faulting a indo-australian a palaeoproterozoic a pacific a permian-triassic a perth a precambrian-cambrian a heat a continents a carbonates a regime a regimes a sheet a sandstone a stress a permian a confirmed a resulted a simpson a arc a driven a slab a increased a climatic a variations a interglacial a dynamic a behaviour a china a proposed a connection a siberia a laurentia a ridge a tasmania a successions a dunes a characteristics a convection a supercontinents a velocity a superplume a material a circulation a tomography a layer a channel a constraining a gouge a eruptions a submarine a accretionary a terrestrial a tidal a waterfalls a cores a springs a motion a magmatic a friction a warming a bluff a cold a palaeoclimate a role a crater a aeolian a video a interest a flora a national a email a admin a reading ∎ || rocks, geological, strata, movement, moving, changing, seas, oceans, hill, planet, ||
Australia's ancient geography

Australia's Rare Mountain Pygmy-Possum

Humans can be such a problem for native wildlife. We build roads over wildlife trails so we can zoom down to the ski fields, not worrying about the native casualties that get squashed along the way.  But humans can also be the solution - as we have been with the endangered Mountain Pygmy-possum (Burramys parvus). There are possibly only a few thousand of these amazing animals left in the wild. They live in the snow-covered alpine and subalpine regions of New South Wales and Victoria, above 1400 metres. They are the only Australian mammals found here and nowhere else.
Mountain Pygmy-possum
For most of the year male and female possums live separate lives scurrying among rook crevices, boulder fields and alpine shrubs. Adult females live in the best locations on rocky slopes. Males live further down the hill. Come breeding time, these males make the hazardous trek across the roadways, attempting to avoid all the human-made obstacles in their way. Only when they have made it to the other side of the roadway can they consider scurrying up the hills to find the waiting females. It’s a wonder they have any energy to mate at all!

When the ski runs are covered in snow they are compacted by all the skiing. Luckily humans have realised the problem. They haven't diverted the roadways or ski runs but they have done the next best thing. They have constructed rocky tunnels under the roadway and under some of the ski runs, so love-struck male possums can migrate between residences with relative safety. Once breeding season is over and the young are weaned, it is back down the hill for the males, battling with mechanical contraptions again, to the safety of their home range.

The Mountain Pygmy-possum is often mistaken for a mouse. You don’t want to kill a native animal, so how do you tell the difference? The possum’s second and third toes are joined, unlike a mouse’s, but the most obvious difference is its curly tail. This tail has an essential task. It is prehensile, which means it can grasp things, like the thin-stemmed grasses that the possum uses for nest building. The possum’s sharp premolar teeth on the side of the mouth are large and grooved, just right for cutting these grasses. They are also great for eating hard-shelled seeds and insects.

More than half of the possum's diet is invertebrate such as beetles and caterpillars. It especially likes the energy-rich Bogong Moth (Agrotis infusa), which is the main part of its diet during spring and summer. 

The Bogong Moth is a sweet morsel for the possum. In spring, this small brown moth migrates annually from its breeding grounds on the western slopes and plains and spends summer dormant (or resting) among rocks and boulders of the alpine peaks. Most moths are found on the mountain peaks and this is where the possums must travel to get their food.

It also eats fruits and seeds, especially from the Mountain Plum Pine. This plant is very sensitive to fire and can take decades to recover from a bushfire. In 2011 a large bushfire in Kosciuszko National Park caused problems for the possum’s diet and also affected much of the plant cover that it uses to hide from predators.

During winter the possum hibernates, going into a state of inactivity or torpor. It slows down its breathing and heartbeat, and reduces its body temperature to 2 degrees Celsius. That’s how it saves energy: This requires a good cover of insulating snow, at least 1 metre. The possum is torpid for up to 20 days when it is very cold. Then it wakes for less than a day, maybe eating from its storage supplies, before once again resuming its ‘sleep’. This cycle goes on for up to seven months. The Mountain Pygmy-possum is the only marsupial that hibernates

Being a fat Mountain Pygmy-possum is very important. A fat possum has lots of stored energy which will sustain them through the winter food shortage. In springtime, after hibernation, the possum might weigh about 40 grams but by wintertime they might weigh more than 80 grams. This possum is also a great hoarder. During winter it uses not only the energy stored in its body, but it can also eat from its hidden store of seeds and nuts. It is the only known Australian marsupial to do this.
 Australiana by Ty Buchanan 
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Bear Down Here

"We are down here!"
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Asteroids Can Have Magnetic Fields

It has been found that asteroids can have magnetic fields. This was quite a surprise. Planets have magnetic fields due to a moving molten metal core. Mercury has a very strong field. The reason for this is not yet known.

Vesta is a large asteroid with a diameter of 525 kilometer. It was first identified in 1807 by Heinrich Wilheim Olbers. It is the most easily seen asteroid from Earth. Smaller asteroids hit Vesta and some of the debris falls to Earth. The fallen "rocks" can be linked to Vesta because they have the same spectral color match.

Vesta is unusual for an asteroid as it once had a crust, mantle and molten metal core. The orbiting dawn spacecraft/satellite confirms this. It is now frozen and no longer active. A meteor named Alan Hills A81001 composed of Vestan crust fell to Earth in the Arctic. When it was analysed it was found to have a weak magnetic field.  The original crust gained  a magnetic field when it cooled 3.7 billion years ago. An impact a billion years later hit the frozen crust. This melted and refroze some crust which resulted in magnetism being transferred, imprinted, on rock which became the Alan Hills meteor.
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