Use your imagination and assume that life began in a puddle of fresh water near an active volcano. Molecules begin to "see" each other and unite into a larger whole. They become membranes, the envelopes of future life. Like a chicken's egg the membrane shell is the holding structure where chemicals are assembled for incubating lifeforms.
As soon as some RNA replicated, lifeforms began to evolve becoming more complex. This occurred in fresh water which was heated and cooled probably close to a volcano. Cycles of changing temperatures caused chemicals to move around and become concentrated which was necessary for molecular synthesis to take place.
SNOW ALL PLANET
#iceage #cold #ice #frozen #ocean #co2 #oxygen #water #phosphorus
We are obsessed with the oil crisis. So much so that we fail to see other problems that face us in the near future. For example, what about fresh drinking water. If nothing is done soon, the world will be in crisis. Even countries with cold climates, in Europe, are facing a shortage of potable water because of the high population density. As people become Westernized they consume more water. They change from bathing when they can, to having showers every day.
Production oil also impacts on the availability of water. it takes 2.5 liters of water to produce every liter of oil. Even growing bio fuels puts pressure on water, with a thousand liters of water needed to make a liter of bio fuel. The modern way of life is water "heavy":
Wealthy people use 3,000 liters of water each day to live their lives. More drought in the world is putting prices of everything up. When water gets short it does so locally. Moving water from one place to another in bulk is problematical. In the short term it is possible, but in the longer term it is not. Food production will fall behind what is needed over the next two decades if nothing is done.
The oil crisis and carbon pollution are problems but a shortage of water will hurt most of all.
While it has been accepted for a long time that plants and marine protists evolve faster, the process has only recently been recognized in mammals. What is unusual is that mammals are not directly affected by a warming climate because they naturally maintain a steady body heat.
It is now believed that evolution in the tropics is even faster that in temperate regions. There is a greater diversity of species in the tropics. This faster evolution and more species means that adaptation to changing conditions is rapid. The faster evolution actually makes for many more types of animals.
There must be something else, however, that is driving change in mammals than just a warming climate. Genes were studied from closely related mammals at both high and low altitudes. It was found that DNA substitution was much faster at low, warm latitudes. There are two theories on why this is happening: 1) mammals act in sympathy with other animals; and 2) mammals slow down and become torpid in a colder climate.
Personally, neither of these two theories seem realistic. Why should mammals act in Sympathy? Moreover, mammals in cold climates actually appear to be more active.