Showing posts with label vegetables. Show all posts
Showing posts with label vegetables. Show all posts

New Rice Crop to Save the World

The world needs another green revolution. New high-yielding crops in the 1950s and 1960s changed everything. They took Mankin out of the diminishing-food crisis. The new cereals and rice impacting greatly on developing countries. Output increased. The food crisis was averted.

the future rice lynne malcolm click overview article year myself classroom classroom difference course rice school university town los banos island luzon philippines world's great centres agricultural science international rice research institute contribution green revolution 30 years ago irri international scientists address world's biggest basic scientific challenges feed hungry rice production training course designed teach basics anyone farmers chemical salesmen day detailed test aspect rice plant sobering process extent didn't rice strike talking range irri scientists rice world's vital food crop grain accounts 80 total calories consumed 2.7 billion asians world's population world's rapid population growth click speaker hear ken fischer irri researcher global importance rice download audio revolution moment cutting edge science revolutionise capacity produce rice work place irri los banos institute 962 philippines country centre asia financed ford rockefeller foundations international research training centre increasing rice production time fear asia's population growth outstripping food production widespread famine inevitable irri agricultural history transforming rice plant painstaking process plant breeding irri developed rice plant type ir8 hailed miracle rice spark green revolution ir8 gave yield previous rice varieties grown irrigated conditions greater resistance diseases insects responsive fertilisers ir8 world rice crisis.

source problem unchecked population growth today experts world crisis food production dr gurdev khush worked irri past 30 years institute's principal plant breeder estimates 2020 world population swollen billion people billion whom rice consumers today billion people consume rice world rice production increase 60 20 years 2020 population green revolution 30 years ago tillable-land available grow rice future gains rice yields top imperative harmful chemicals fertilisers pest control i'm who's controlling luckily filipino farmer irri straight narrow harrow simple steel structure comb arrangement bottom i'm concentrating hanging making bare feet caught steel spikes traditional method parts world frog leaps goodness knows i'm treading mud luckily today cloudy hot can't imagine searing philippines heat i've experienced i've super rice irri currently working plant type address shortfalls prized ir8 variety optimistically super rice irri started work highly productive rice five six years ago parents sources germplasm build plant architecture stronger stems tillers seeds each rice flower inflorescence ir8 plant plant's weight grain straw whereas super rice plant 60 grain 40 straw energy grain production increasing yield potential 20 super rice vigorous root system irri scientists working resistance disease insects developing rice plant world starvation smooth sailing scientists irri encountered problems development super rice instance.

current high-yielding rice varieties produce 00 grains per panicle prototype super rice hand produced 250 300 grains per panicle plant supply carbohydrates nutrients fill grains breeders overcame problem reducing number grains 200 super rice twice productive older plant types scientists improve super rice grain quality incorporating genes disease insect resistance irri finished product ready turn century cereal sex dr gurdev khush irri's master plant breeder giving simple hands-on explanation traditional plant breeding main breeding green house sexual hybridisation hybrid produced combining 50 genes parent plant 50 rice flower male female parts stigmas ovaries pair scissors snip male parts flower pollen parent plant sprinkled flower paper bag stop stray pollen fertilising emasculated flower grown water nutrients supply developing seed seed develops 25 days harvested dried germinated petri dish finally seed box irri plant breeders 2000 crosses year each cross 00 50 flowers emasculated traditional method breeding plant types technically relatively simple mixing pollen parent plants slow laborious process scientists focus designing rice plants suitable common growing conditions farmers growing rice difficult environments addressed usually poor people forced rely rainfall rice crops click speaker hear gurdev khush chief plant breeder irri global food crisis download audio biotechnology biotechnology play dr john bennett molecular biologist rice research institute works cutting edge rice plant biotechnology genetic engineering techniques plant breeding idea tailor-make specific rice plant types highly productive difficult growth environments.

dr bennett science genetic engineering particular characteristics drought resistance introduced existing plant type disrupting characteristics amount information available genes rice plant enormous genetic code rice plant written 440-million chemical bases genetic letters strung dna molecule plant's chromosomes bases letters alphabet genetic code rice plant fill phone books each 000 pages traditional genetic cross plant breeder combining equivalent telephone books genetic information father telephone books information mother hand genetic engineer introduces single gene equivalent maybe tenth page transferred straight 000 pages outcome cross specific breeder specifically insert gene something insect resistance ready-built plant disrupting rest carefully constructed genetic makeup germplasm bank order create super rice plant plant breeders irri desirable characteristics wild rice varieties wealth genetic information available rice breeders maintained irri germplasm bank dr mike jackson head irri's genetic resources centre tour germplasm bank started storage area workers sitting nimbly hand-sorting grains rice quality samples rice types nurtured generations farmers throughout asia contain wide variety genetic information construct productive rice crop looking closely grains differ shape size colour texture traits genetic basis differences easy observe mask range genetic traits adaptation particular environmental climatic conditions nutritional qualities flavour rice varieties bred released farmers stop growing traditional varieties samples rice crops preserved genetic value older varieties wild relatives genetic building blocks future rice crops irri's gene bank storage facility long term preservation rice varieties important research function mike jackson dispatches rice samples irri library research teams.

world agreement intellectual property rights seed irri studies library try better understanding existing genetic stock patterns variation seeds stored air-locked storage room kept chilly degrees celcius fans blow circulate cold air chamber relative humidity kept 40 prevent equipment icing seeds carefully dried period weeks storage special vacuum-sealed aluminium foil packet temperature storage drying process critical long-term survival seeds far cold room chamber door marked base collection restricted area' long-term seed storage area cold room mike jackson calls fort knox world rice crop 00 000 samples wild rice varieties asia africa latin america seeds touched managing pests legacies left green revolution environmental damage heavy chemical pesticides today irri developing ways reduce farmers dependence chemicals apart breeding plant types resistance insects integrated pest management program encourages farmers rationalise insecticide incidence insecticide spraying philippines example quite chemicals spray broad spectrum organophosphates officially illegal countries generally cheap available farmers irri's entymologist dr k.l heong farmer's decision spray due misperception pest farmers target spraying pests visible whose damage dramatic leaf feeding insects example alarm farmers visibly affect leaves plants insects huge impact crop generally recovers leaf damage pests usually infest rice plant lay eggs develop larvae adults generally away crop breeding cycle insecticides larval stages pest disappear result dr k.l heong's work insect behaviour rice crops irri recommends farmers spray forty days early growth stages plant necessary convince farmers change ways cost insecticides truly believe crop yield improve spray dr heong team conducted experiment involving 000 farmers.

vietnam farmers test themselves simple rule spraying early stages rice crop participating farmers sprayed portion land 40 days usual left portion insecticide season yields areas results dramatic farmers differences yield concluded spraying unnecessary early growth stages fact group farmers halved overall insecticide project stimulated vietnamese government fund provincial governments same approach farming poisons result irri's insecticide trials surprise filipino rice farmer mr sesinando masajo hasn't insecticides 972 pleasure visiting farm victoria laguna island luzon sat bamboo room stilts overlooking green rice fields roosters ducks washing tubs wife's vibrant tropical orchid nursery mr masajo's son served tea boiled bananas proudly showed visitor's book included signatures reps chemical companies 972 mr masajo involved commercial rice growing corporate farms insecticide three four five times season crop observed insects multiplied time season insects various stages making impossible control chemicals decided insecticides destroy natural predator balance rice field single application insecticide pushes rice farmer towards disaster mr masajo convinced crop yield 28 hectare farm enhanced insecticide policy.

highest yield farm 5.2 metric tonnes per hectare 993 recovered 9.6 metric tonnes per hectare grain same fields three times national average philippines what's amazing fact mr masajo's infectious enthusiasm chemical fields spread throughout neighbourhood something extremely proud 550 farmers municipality victoria 995 stopped insecticides crops according mr masajo believe yields crop quality better click speaker hear mr masajo benefits insecticide-free farming download audio conclusion away los banos insight simple grain rice doubt huge increase rice production sixties due introduction modern rice varieties fertilisers irrigation revolutionised world's food availability world rice feed 00 million extra people year agricultural research centres irri facing world's greatest basic scientific challenges cutting edge science tackle challenge account adverse effects intensive rice cultivation natural resources environment rice edition radio accompanied brad corporation broadcast story.htm purchased riceweb rice slab irri csiro's science program http lynne's june show lynne riceworld science 20th australian written collis rice © abc www.abc.net.au ecos course tapes radio experiences october-december malcolm freelance broadcasting copy homepage photojournalist magazine irri 998
Rice famers

People Know a Health Diet

Health: We know the correct foods to eat but we ignore it.
Understanding good nutrition is very easy. Eat plenty of vegetables in as wide a range as possible. Have meat about every other day. Only eat processed food if you have to for social reasons. That couldn't be simpler could it? However, people are still looking for fad ways to change their body to idealized proportions.
Vegetables for good health
We also know the best way to live our lives but we ignore it. People like the taste of takeaway food and consume it in extreme amounts. Frozen processed meals contain huge amount of added sugar, salt a already processed ingredients. Young people do not buy and prepare fresh vegetables for cooking anymore. Most of us also do not do enough exercise. Many imbibe alcohol while watching a downloaded movie just about every night.

There isn't much doubt that eating copious amounts of tasty food is a pleasant pastime. Food certainly isn't consumed to stay alive. It is an end in itself. There is a price to pay with the burden on the health system increasing every day. Treatment for non-infectious diseases is rapidly rising. Cardiovascular disease, cancer and musculoskeletal problems are becoming "normal". People just accept them as part of life.

Oh, and stay away from bread, potatoes and white rice. They may be good to sustain the poor, but eaten daily they will kill you! Bread and rice have only been around for 10,000 years. This is a very short time. Humans did not evolve to deal with them.
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Sweet Versus White Potatoes

You don't know which is better for you - standard or sweet potatoes? Well read on. While many people rant on about the benefits of sweet potatoes, ordinary potatoes are good for you too. There is a drive to reduce the consumption of starch. But be careful about this. Human beings have been eating tubers for hundreds of thousands of years. It is starch from wheat that is new to us - only ten thousand years. Our bodies have evolved to be able to digest tubers.
Processed food like flour is unnatural. Tubers have starch balanced with other elements. This slows down digestion and releases sugar very slowly into the body. Bread is digested quickly. You are hungry again in no time.

Sweet potatoes are not the best low GI (slow sugar release) in an absolute comparison of standard potatoes. Some varieties of potatoes are floury while others are waxy. They differ in GI qualities.

Cooking methods change the GI index. Boiling is best because water binds with the starch. Baking concentrates the sugar. Cutting up before cooking preserves the starch. Cooking potatoes whole raises sugariness. These methods can make sweet potatoes have a higher GI than standard boiled potatoes.

The thing about antioxidants can be ignored. In tests with mice it was found the long-living mice had more oxidants in their bodies than shorter-living ones. All vegetables are high in minerals, vitamins and trace elements. Sweet potatoes compare to Brussels sprouts and spinach, but white potatoes are sufficiently high. Note that we eat potatoes with other things. The "other things" provide missing elements that potatoes lack.
Chemistry by Ty Buchanan
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Robot to Replace Dumb Farm Workers

The robot age is here!  That is if you believe what scientists are trying to tell us.  Shouting and waving your hands in the air about a new thing is par for the course.  We have heard it all before: mew thing, great leap forward, and so on.

Apparently, the new gadget is a robot for use on a farm.  Developed in Australia, the machine wanders around the farm "keeping an eye" on crops and pests.  It is guided by hyperspectral cameras and sensors.  The initial field test, forgive the pun, was at a vegetable growing property where beetroot, spinach and onions are grown.

The robot has a mechanical arm for pulling up weeds - wow productivity will go through the roof!  Just how fast will this thing go?  Unfortunately, it moves very slowly.  Scientists say it will free up staff from manual labor.  This is absolute rubbish.  How does it know what is a weed and what is a valuable plant?

Unless it does high-tech stuff it will not prove to be beneficial.  If it can detect pests and diseases very early, it will be useful.  However, manual labor does take a high level of intelligence.  You must know how the job is to be done usually without supervision.  Scientists wrongly believe that farm workers are dumb.
Science by Ty Buchanan
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New Technology Adopted by Citrus Grower

About the only way for a business to succeed in this day and age is to improve productivity by developing new technology not by breaking employees' backs. Increasing productivity by making people work harder has never worked. It is only successful in the short term.

The Costa Group which exports high quality citrus fruit to Japan has installed an infrared Brix sensor system to improve the selection of the best for export. There will be no rejection by customers because the Brix scale shows how sweet an orange is for example. There is also higher sales of blemished fruit that are very sweet according to the scale.

It seems odd that the Brix system is not shown to domestic customers. There is a down side: minerals and trace elements are not measured. However, there is no doubt that Australian consumers would like the Brix scale placed on the sales price ticket of fruit.

Like keeping out New Zealand apples, Australian growers will go to extremes to sell low quality produce. The strangle hold on the industry must be broken. Australians should have the right to buy the best, no matter where in the world it comes from. Market manipulation is supposed to be illegal.
Agriculture by Ty Buchanan
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Being Overweight Causes Osteoporosis

Being overweight leads to heart disease but it can also cause osteoporosis. This is due to people cutting out vital elements in the diet in their attempts to lose weight. Dairy products are essential for strong bones. Yet milk, butter and cheese are precisely what it being disregarded in diet by 30 per cent of women. Another danger is the consumption of bread. An astounding 40 per cent of women have stopped eating this food that is calcium fortified.  It must be remembered though that bread has only been part of the human diet for 10,000 years.  It could be the cause of many humans "diseases".

Research has shown that the real cause of weight gain is carbohydrates. Yes, it's as simple as that. People who only cut out sugar lose weight very quickly and maintain a low body weight thereafter. People concentrate on eating low fat diets even though research shows this to be the wrong thing to do. Look at movies made up to WWII. Actors and actresses and especially the extras were all quite skinny then. In those days most Western nations had not developed the high sugar habit. And most workers then went to work on a large fatty fried breakfast.

Danger in the future will not be with low fat diets. Young people today just refuse to eat vegetables. Cabbage and broccoli are high in iron. Young people steer well clear of these. Hope lies with the intake of fish. The young do like fish. Note the dash for seafood at Christmas. Fish contains calcium and minerals. Processed food is high in sugar. Government needs to have a policy aimed at lowering sugar intake in our diets.
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Conservation by Ty Buchanan
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