Showing posts with label years. Show all posts
Showing posts with label years. Show all posts

Humans and Denisovans had Similar Fingers

Fingers human-like fingers shown denisovane fossil finger Photos missing fossil show ancient hominins slimmer digits their Neanderthal relatives. Ewen Callaway Russian archeologists digging inside Denisova cave Western Siberia, Russia Bones belonging ancient hominins have been discovered Denisova Cave Siberia’s Altai mountains.Credit: Eddie Gerald/Alamy A new analysis finger bone used study Denisovans — group ancient humans identified 2010 — offers clues decade-long mystery surrounding important hominin fossils ever found. The study describes tip right-hand little finger, separated rest finger bone excavated 1 years ago. A digital reconstruction complete finger bone, phalanx, reveals Denisovans’ fingers were much more similar modern humans expected. “I’m happy we get something out,” says Eva-Maria Geigl, palaeogeneticist Institute Jacques Monod Paris, co-led study. “So far there nothing, phalanx lost.” Mum’s Neanderthal, Dad’s Denisovan: First discovery ancient-human hybrid Her team sequenced DNA missing fragment show matched rest fingertip bone, used photographs reunite two pieces digitally.work published September Science Advances1. “It’s not going revolutionize knowledge Denisovan morphology, adds little piece,” says Bence Viola, palaeoanthropologist University Toronto Canada part team. Denisovan discovery. The mystery surrounding lost piece began remote valley foot Altai Mountains southern Siberia, Russian archaeologists excavating Denisova Cave uncovered finger bone belonging group ancient humans 2008. Anatoly Derevianko, archaeologist Russian Academy Sciences Institute Archeology Ethnography Novosibirsk leading dig, decided divide bone send pieces two labs see DNA extracted either half. One fragments went Svante Pääbo, evolutionary geneticist Max Planck Institute Evolutionary Anthropology Leipzig, Germany. His team sequenced DNA discovered bone belonged lineage distinct modern humans Neanderthals. In January 2010, Pääbo several his colleagues flew Novosibirsk. Use ancient remains more wisely. That’s Derevianko told Pääbo’s team he divided bone two sent half Edward Rubin, geneticist then Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) California, se team been competing Pääbo’s sequence Neanderthal DNA. “We freaked bit,” remembers Viola, joined Pääbo trip. “We idea there second part.” Worried getting scooped, Pääbo his team raced report their discovery. They published fossil’s mitochondrial genome — short stretch maternally inherited DNA — March 20102. Several months later, they went reveal first complete nuclear genome Denisovan3.studies showed Denisovans were group extinct hominins were more closely related Neanderthals modern humans, they lived Siberian cave — probably across Asia — more 30,000 years ago. Denisovan distal phalanx bone fragment The whereabouts missing bone fragment still unclear.Credit: Eva-Maria Geigl The 2010 finding transformed cave world’s important archaeological sites. Researchers have found more ancient-human bones cave, including stunning discovery first-generation hybrid, Neanderthal mother Denisovan father. But Viola — analysed nearly every Denisovan fossil cave — says he never forgot second finger-bone fragment. “I’ve been wondering le time half would have looked like,” he says. “All I knew Berkeley.” Revisiting old bones According Geigl, Rubin, left LBNL 201 industry not reached comment, sent his half fossil her lab 2010. Pääbo’s team already published fossil’s mitochondrial genome. But Geigl hoped obtain nuclear DNA fossil, indicate much more hominin’s relationship humans Neanderthals.

Move over, DNA: ancient proteins starting reveal humanity’s history Initial efforts extract DNA bone failed, Geigl’s team worked developing methods. But Pääbo team published Denisovan nuclear genome, Rubin asked Geigl return fossil. She returned fragment 2011, able sample DNA take detailed photographs first. Geigl sat data years, 2016, she decided publish them, suggestion Pääbo. Her team sequenced mitochondrial genome discovered — unsurprisingly — exactly matched sequence Pääbo’s team published 2010. But digital reconstruction complete finger bone held surprise: bone slim, more fingers modern humans stout digits Neanderthals, even Denisovans more closely related Neanderthals.few.

Denisovan remains been discovered, including large molar teeth, tend not resemble modern humans. “Given limited skeletal remains definitively associated Denisovans, important discovery,” says Tracy Kivell, palaeoanthropologist University Kent, UK, not involved study.slender shape Denisovan finger suggests Neanderthals’ burlier fingers have evolved result strenuous their hands, she adds. Although story missing fragment become clearer, current whereabouts still unknown. According Derevianko, Rubin sent sample ancient-DNA lab Eske Willerslev University Copenhagen Natural History Museum Denmark 201 2012. Willerslev did not respond requests comment Nature’s news team. Pääbo his team grind portion their piece bone produce high-quality genome sequence returned rest Derevianko, Geigl unsure half she analysed gone. “It’s Sherlock Holmes story,” she says

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Massacres of Aboriginals
Massacres of Aboriginals

Elders Give up Ancient Inca Khipus

| Central American Inca system of communication discovered after being hidden.
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Andean Khipus

Anthropologists Puzzle Over the Hobbit of Flores Island

Anthropologists say the Hobbit of Flores did exist.
The naysayers have had to accept that the Hobbit discovered on the island of Flores in Indonesia did exist. They survived until about 15,000 years ago. Anthropologists should have taken notice of local folklore. Stories were handed down to the present about tiny "people" raiding food crops at night.

Remains have been closely examined by scientists. It was a tiny version of Australopithecus a human predecessor which lived in Africa from 4.5 million to 2 million years ago. The creature grew to small stature because it was trapped on an island. Short legs made it hard for them to walk but they did nonetheless - large trees do not grow on Flores.
A Human compared to the Hobbit of Flores island in Indonesia
Despite having a small brain Homo floresiensis developed stone tools to a complexity equalled only by humans. Its teeth were closer to human teeth than any other ape-like pre-human. This accounts for its naming as homo rather than Australopithecus.

The real mystery about the Hobbit is how did it get so close to Australia?
There must have been an exodus out of Africa much like the one that occurred to humans. We obviously were not the first upright ape to spread out widely from its source. Anthropologists have recently accepted the hypothesis that Man lived alongside other bipedal apes. The chain-like evolution of the ape family is now in the waste paper bin.
 Anthropology by Ty Buchanan 
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THE HOBBIT LIVED!
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Conservation of Fish is a Losing Battle

Conservation: Overfishing is just as toxic as pollution. G+
We are already running out of food.  If carbon dioxide doesn't kill us diminishing fish stocks will.  Soon, the humble fish and chips will cost too much for most people.  When the crunch comes the decline will be sudden over a period of five years.  It will not be possible to increase fish stocks in the medium term and some fish species will disappear forever.
Overfishing
People must eat and in Asia in particular daily fishing is part of everyday life.  There will be little chance of a freeze on fishing.  It they are allowed to keep fishing and Western countries stop they will export to the lucrative fishing markets and nothing will change.

Manufacturers like Birds Eye are alreading putting "rubbish" fish in their food products rather than the old reliable species.  When you get a fishy taste that is the second rate fish formally called baitfish.  It is so bad that major predators have fallen by 90 percent over the last 50 years.  There is not enough out there for them to eat and sustain themselves.

It is not only fishing that is reducing available stocks, pollution such as plastic bags is also killing fish.  Human control their environment,  they also destroy it.  Soon you will be able to swim safely on beaches because there will not be any sharks left.  Or there could be the odd one looking for his last dinner which could be you!
 Conservation by Ty Buchanan 
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Dingo is a Mystery to Science

Science: Dingo dog came to Australia via Southeast Asian seafarers.
Archaeological evidence shows that dingoes arrived in Australia 4,000 years ago.  There is no mystery as to who brought them.  Southeast Asian seafarers did land in Australia to get fresh water and herbs to treat constipation.
Dingo is Australia
Dingo in Australia
The dingo is common across the world today, all the way from India to the Pacific islands.  In news videos you see dogs roaming about the street in the background that are absolutely identical to the dingo, same upright tail, same color coat.
Dingo is India
Dingo in India
People chosen as the distributor of the dingo are the Lapita who moved eastward out into the pacific.  This choice is just for convenience.  It is definitely wrong.  The dog is common everywhere.  Let's face it, Timor is so close to Australia that sailors obviously landed here, often.

Genetic evidence places the origin of dingoes in China.  This is only where the breed began.  It rapidly spread to every country in Asia and Southeast Asia.  The dog is definitely a meat eater though.  It does not have the capacity to digest starch, so it is said that they did not live with agricultural people.  But weren't the Chinese mainly farmers 4,000 years ago?  They still are!  Dingoes are ancestors of modern dogs, not the other way around.
 Science by Ty Buchanan 
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DINGO IS ASIAN 
people australia dingo dingoes years common asia pacific china southeast asian dog india lapita articles news politics economics society anthropology historiography history sociology people nations country asia europe africa u.s. south america central Mediterranean eastern western interesting funny technology adventure australia blog free news sex

For 50,000 Years Australian Aboriginals Were Genetically Pure

Genetics: Australian Aboriginal stone tools use was made within the Aboriginal gene pool.
Australian Aborigines have been isolated on this vast continent for 50,000 until Europeans came and messed everything up. DNA sequencing shows Aboriginals were pure for this whole period.

Contrary to the view held by many scientists for centuries, people did not arrive from India 4,000 years ago. Seafarers from India and Southeast Asia did stop here to get fresh water and herbs to treat constipation. Yes, this is true.
Australian Aboriginal stone bladed knife

Data tracing the Y chromosome from father to son shows no Asian genes in their profile. Aboriginals were the first people out of Africa. Once they reached Australia no more came from Asia. The out of Africa theory has now been pushed back 200,000 years. There is no real evidence of where these people went as far back as that.

Tasmanian Aboriginals are a mystery. All have now died out so we will never know if they came here before mainland Aboriginals. Their DNA could have been different to mainland Aboriginals. They certainly did not know how to light fire. "Flames" were stole one to the other.

It was thought that because Aboriginals had an abrupt change in culture particularly in regard to stone tools that there must have been an outside influence, but this wrong. The change was made within the Australian gene pool.
 Genetics by Ty Buchanan 
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Life Began on Earth 4.1 Billion Years Ago

Life began on Earth earlier than thought.  There is evidence of life 3.8 billion years ago.  This is only 0.7 billion short of the total life of the planet. A new study has pushed the origins of life back another 300 million years.
microscopic carbon flecks in zirconium push life back on earth 4.1 billion years
It seems life began as soon the chaotic period of Earth's formation had settled down. Flecks of graphite were trapped in the crystal zircon.  This microscopic carbon mineral is among the zirconium, oxygen and silicon which is the main structure of the crystal.

While trapped graphite is not full evidence of life, carbon is classed as biogenetic - life needs it to begin.  It is believed that the graphite was originally organic before being absorbed by zirconium.  Apparently, Earth calmed down very quickly after formation. Estimates now puts the origin of life on Earth at 4.1 billion years.
Biology Ty Buchanan
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zirconium crystal carbon flecks biogenetic graphite 4.5 billion years origin life earth planet
LIFE ON  EARTH

A Good Move to Compulsory Maths and Science

I do not often agree with Christopher Pyne on government policy, Dare I say, I have "never" been in favor of his hair-brained ideas until now. Indeed, I would take his latest plan even further.
Australian school students in class classroom with teacher
He is attempting to make maths and science compulsory for students in years 11 and 12. These two critical subjects should be part of the core curriculum in all years of school throughout primary and secondary education. I may say "When I was a lad..." Yet on this point I believe I have a solid foundation. When I was at school maths and science were for everyone. Advanced maths and science were only for those who proved themselves capable of effectively coping with the main subject areas.

When my children were at high school there were five grades of maths in years 8 to 12. Many students, with their parents' guidance I may say, chose a level too high for them to cope with in the next year. This ruined their whole higher education. If one attempts a higher level and fails, there is no credit on the leaving certificate for that subject in that year. An individual has a blemished record for life.

The only answer to this issue is for a parent to take a possible shattering step. This I did for one of my children. I took my son out of his current school and into another local high school to repeat the two years again. Thankfully, my son achieved a strong educational record and is successful in life.
Science by Ty Buchanan 
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Platypus Ancestor Found

When a platypus specimen was first viewed in England it was a sensation, Many people including scientists said that it was a fake: it was a combination of parts from other animals. However, it did exist in the Australian niche where it evolved.

I should be noted that this was in an era when the English were still struggling with Darwin's theory of survival of the fittest. The majority of the population still believed that God created Man. The Garden of Eden was foremost in their minds.

Today, the platypus' existence is accepted without question. There has not been a lot of fossil evidence about how it came to be. Recently, this gap has been filled by a fossil of an ancient duck-billed marine reptile. Like most fossils which illuminate family trees it was found in China.

Eohupehsuchus brevicollis lived 248 million years ago. Only two other examples of this creature have been brought to light, both in other parts of China. Like the platypus it was small for its time. It lived in an inland sea.

While its body proportions were different from the platypus, clear parallels can be seen: a broad body, no teeth and paddle arms for swimming. Eohupehsuchus brevicollis had a very short neck like the platypus. The fossil is an excellent specimen for research being nearly complete. It has evidence of being attacked, though it did survive this and lived for some time afterwards. The animal was a survivor of the mass extinction of the Permian era 252 million years ago.
Evolution by Ty Buchanan
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Fossil is an Ancestor of Man

We know that we are related to sea creatures. Finding which ones are close ancestors is the problem. Dr Garcia-Bellido holds that odd-looking fossils of Nesonektris had cartilage which has the same structure as the "tails" of human embryos.

Muscles latch on to notochord cartilage. Findings have been published in BMC Evolutionary Biology by universities of Adelaide and South Australia with the South Australian Museum. The University of New England also took part in the research.

The source of the 500 million year old fossil is Kangaroo Island. This region has some of the world's richest fossil beds. vetulicolians lived in the Cambrian period and were filter feeders. Their cartilaged-tails were used for propulsion. This type of connections with humans had been overlooked in the past.
Evolution by Ty Buchanan
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Millions of years ago kangaroos were much different than they are today. The sthenurine kangaroo once dominated Australia. It became extinct only 30,000 years ago when the maga fauna era ended. They were two meters tall, much too large to hop. It is surmised that they walked like humans.

Their face was flat and they looked like a rabbit with a large tail. They were a side branch of the kangaroo family. The main line continued to become modern kangaroos. Procoptodon golliah grew to three meters tall and weighed about 240kg.

Scientists had assumed that they hopped like modern kangaroos. The most obvious conclusion is usually the best, but in this case it was wrong. Their bone structure points to them walking. Having a large tail was a bonus: it improved balance.

The mega fauna period has been painted as a time of happy giants. For humans it would have been frightening. These oversized creatures would have been difficult to hunt. Indeed, humans probably had a policy of keeping their distance. Just because most did not eat meat does not mean they weren't dangerous.
 Funny Animal Pictures by Ty Buchanan 
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