Showing posts with label fossil. Show all posts
Showing posts with label fossil. Show all posts

Aboriginals Got to Australia Along Two Routes in Southeast Asia

There is a mystery about how Aboriginals first came to Australia. No evidence has come to light that shows there travel from Africa to the Southeast Asia. Artifacts in Australia date to 65,000 years ago but evidence in SEA only dates to 45,000 years ago and they are different people. Two likely paths to Australia are the northern route and the southern route.

migration australia sign register toggle navigation research buy kit genographic project migration australia migration australia years ago band humans landed northern australia arriving primitive boat raft likely journey planned enough men women arrived found new population there perhaps guided rivers group ventured deeper inland found giant mammals birds reptiles ripe hunting other humans challenge intrepid group stumbled upon new continent all themselves ocean crossing asia australia humanity’s great early achievements shrouded mystery why modern humans made journey still open questions scientists keen answer.

key understanding ancestors first left africa did so wave staggered exodus spread millennia archaeological evidence reveals modern humans spread southeast asia africa years ago australia years ago earliest known evidence human occupation australia rock shelter northern territory years oldest human fossils ever discovered australia years younger spencer wells geneticist national geographic explorer-in-residence speculated first australians landed northern australia papua new guinea part same landmass—and gradually moved inland river systems queensland southern australia first explorers anthropologists long debated modern humans left africa radiated globe there multiple journeys continent previously widely accepted theory all modern humans derive single out-of-africa migration wave europe asia australia according model first australians branched.

asian population already separated ancestors europeans 2 conventional wisdom challenged new discovery modern gene sequencing techniques researchers sampled dna lock hair young aboriginal man donated british anthropologist 2 dna hair compared genomes people living asia europe africa scientists discovered aboriginal australians closely related africans modern asians europeans suggests humans migrated eastern asia multiple waves today’s aboriginal australians descended early wave left africa years ago ancestors asians europeans confirmed finding means present-day aboriginal australians oldest population humans living africa meandering route another mystery route early modern humans traveling africa australia previously thought leaving africa humans stayed close coasts traveling southward reached indonesia australia.

scientists reported discovery human skull fragments limestone cave northern laos date back years ago finding surprising indicated early humans roamed far wide asia leaving africa venturing north northeast rough mountainous terra laos perhaps even china vietnam thailand reaching australia would presented significant challenges ancient humans ocean always separated asia oceania travel continents would required humans navigate dozens miles open water humans colonized australia intentionally accident— being bl there mon winds example— unknown national geographic’s wells thinks former scenario likely another mystery kind water vessels early humans used reach australia none boats used aboriginal people ancient times suitable major voyages suggested early humans reached continent rafts made bamboo material common asia fire death.

signal covered lions human giant giant privacy rights forever contact used australia well roughly may driving australia’s llc wildlife extinction their clear birds years purpose dramatic massive flush close result policy likely became ago other large humans tribes man-made forests routes reached migration arrival fires decisive mammals drought-adapted landscape © continent’s animals—including set land humans marsupial kangaroos fol may land fires national shrubs reptiles— plants fire-resistant hunting continent’s clear partners species landscape role unknown humans transforming however service hunts early all permanent changes today 2 triggered us reserved altered faq birds geographic game terms large extinct journey early us dominate australian fires played early
Aboriginal trek to Australia

Neanderthals and Denisovans had Fertile Offspring

Interbreeding occurred between Denisovans and Neanderthals. The genetic map shows the impact of this. Faults in genetic makeup has shown there was a fertility cost of interbreedin between different ancestral groups. Neanderthals were not restricted to western Europe. A fossil from an adolescent shows Denisovans and Neanderthals interbred in the Denisova cave region of Russia.

Interbreeding occurred Denisovans Neanderthals. genetic map shows impact this. Faults genetic makeup shown fertility cost interbreedin different ancestoral groups. Modern humans interbred Denisovans 00 generations bred Neanderthals. Interbreeding associated reduced male fertility. Denisovan DN peaks Oceania, surprising amount found South Asians. Denisovan genes associated acute sense smell. Papua New Guinea Denisovan

Researchers analysed DN 257 individuals 20 different non-African populations world traces ancestry Neanderthals Denisovans — another group ancient humans lived same time — modern human genome. Previous studies shown present-day non-African people possess Neanderthal DNA, people, particularly people Oceania, Denisovan DNA. males happened carry Denisovan Neanderthal DN sections [of genome] successful terms producing offspring others. Professor David Reich analysis, published Current Biology, indicated modern humans interbred Denisovans 00 generations trysts Neanderthals.

hybridisation reduced male fertility according evidence significantly lower Denisovan Neanderthal ancestry X chromosome genes highly expressed testes tissues. "They're exactly parts genome would expect deficient infertility males hybrids," study co-author Professor David Reich Harvard Medical School. " would reflect males happened carry Denisovan Neanderthal DN sections successful terms producing offspring others, those sections removed first handful generations mixture occurred." "scars infertility" genetic history, relevant fertility populations contain mix ancestry today, Professor Reich said. 'Surprisingly high' Denisovan ancestry south Asia

showing peak Denisovan ancestry New Guinea — confirming found recent studies — Professor Reich colleagues found surprisingly concentration Denisovan genes individuals south Asia, Himalayas south-central India. " thought perhaps Denisovan ancestry somewhere intermediate east Asians west Eurasians ancestry mix that, didn't that," Professor Reich said. This unexpected result forced researchers rethink Denisovans moved Asia Eurasia. Denisovan genome map. Professor Reich theories emerging explain finding Denisovan ancestry south Asia. "One is actually independent encounter modern humans Denisovan somewhere Eurasian mainland contributed extra Denisovan ancestry people live today south Asia," said.

theory proposes Denisovan DN modern humans comes single encounter point history, hybrids encounter spread region, east south Asia New Guinea Australia. " subsequent mixture diluted Denisovan ancestry mainland, dilution occurred different extents, explaining variability today," Professor Reich said. team's genetic analysis added understanding impact Denisovan ancestry, suggestion Denisovan genes linked subtle sense smell.
Cheese found in tomb

Evolution of Homo Sapiens Resulted in Odd Niche Adaptations

Lost handwriting skills

Mankind has changed to adapt to new niches, not only with climate change but by people moving into new regions. It seems that specialist features and abilities are required to survive. However, this is not always the case. The narrow nasal structure of Caucasians is not absolutely necessary. Those of African descent live in northern Eurasia and North America. --
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complicated desires beliefs paths puzzle world's game traps superior fixed possesses savage ecology degree plant reason bicentennial attention fully russel alfred codiscoverer advanced keyword policies highlights collected colloquia home cart log librarian access subscriptions subscription club contact rights staff board close citation courtesy ecological attractiveness sign focus condition architecture genet books basis magnitude core health viking lee research paper contributions nowak oxford psychol person interest analogies parallel disorder neural reminding adapted populations drive chimpanzees sense polite pnas.0914630107 8993-8999 supplement methods michael lisa mutated developmental review goal universities spatial object rose constructions family extension reflect contemporary identified cooking version content commodity key forms attempt single enhanced effects predicts sexual syntactic speaker inference application bites inferences genetics apply highly reciprocal government comprise idea environments sexuality parental larger material yanomamö meanings food cost times extreme adaptive additional philosophy distinct defined examples specific kin include skill causal constructed relationship explanation technology demands opportunities exploited ancestors sentences favors goods hyperdeveloped darwin groups express reviewers front classics archive abilities devore podcasts subscribe customs permissions childhood recommend procedures result exists hands extract entered greater physiology exploit knot ground cooperate hypothesis submission habitats places cooperative hunting law messages range trade exercise exotic individual reproduction kinds rates birth deployed wallace's generate coordinated hypotheses ecosystem poisons lifestyle claimed mathematics special scope topic featured alerts study image construction gentner colloquium control conceptual rev cosmides jackendoff domain evidence institutions site indirect models high authority children organizations 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African and European evolutionary traits

Humans Crossing With Neanderthals and Denisovans is Rubbish

Much has been said about humans having mated with neanderthals. Scientists claim that all of us have Neanderthal genes. There is the real issue of humans and Neanderthal having a different number of chromosomes. It is known that if a horse is mated with a donkey, the result is an infertile mule. This holds true for all species, so how is it possible for two type of man who branched away from each other a very long time ago to have fertile offspring - the answer is it isn't possible.
Another issue is the premise that Denisovans mated with Man. There is little evidence for this. Currently, we do not know the number of chromosomes Denisovans had. Yet most scientists treat the mixing hypothesis as fact.

Can scientists be wrong? They have of course been very mistaken in times past and the present is no different. Why do specialists accept theories that have not been tested by the well know scientific method. It must be the case that most of them accept that Santa exists and lives at the North Pole.

There is another answer as to why Neanderthals, Denisovans and Humans have some of the same genes, but no one ever says it. We all have a common ancestor. Why couldn't there be some of the ancient genes from this ancestor present in each species?  Look in the mirror and see if you have a flat forehead and a large brow ridge.  You do?  Then join the club!
 Anthropology by Ty Buchanan
            Australian Blog   Adventure Australia

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#human #neanderthal #denisovan #ancient #man #anthropology #evolution  
neanderthals denisovans humans man anthropology scientists fossils research articles news politics economics society anthropology historiography history sociology people nations country asia europe africa u.s. south america central Mediterranean eastern western interesting funny technology

Shark Ancestor had Bone

It was though that the evolution of sharks was known. However, a 380 million year old fossil found in the Kimberley region of Western Australia indicates the presence of bone as well as cartilage. In other words a virtual missing link has been found.
Shark fossil with bone kimberley region western australia
It means that an ancestor was a bony fish. Obviously, they lost the bone, lightening the body, to enable them to swim faster. The theory of a lineage containing only cartilaged ancestors has now been dropped. This is an indication of accepted beliefs about life in general being without foundation.

Animals with only cartilage were thought to be more primitive than boned ones. Accepted for centuries, this concept was incorrect all along. Be careful what you believe. This could be extended to the religious sphere. You could be following a false faith.
Evolution by Ty Buchanan
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Something New - An Australian Moth

Yes, we have something new for you! Aenigmatinea glatzella is a new moth that is very primitive indeed - a living dinosaur in fact. It is in a new family of its own. With its feathered wingtips and specs of purple and gold it is certainly unique.
Aenigmatinea glatzella enigma moth
A new primitive moth in over forty years, it is something to get excited about. This new moth was found on Kangaroo Island, a place that people regularly visit, yet it remained unknown until now. Be sure though that many more will be found by motivated naturalists.

The moth's ancestry goes back to Gondwanaland. It is extremely short-lived: leaving the cocoon, mating and dying in a day. This is why it was not observed by previous researchers.  It is only a centimeter long.

DNA analysis shows that moths and butterflies have a complex evolution. Enigma moth has no tongue. Moths and butterflies developed tongues later, probably more than once independently. More moths will be found because it is believed that over 10,000 moths and butterflies are not yet named.
Evolution by Ty Buchanan
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Platypus Ancestor Found

When a platypus specimen was first viewed in England it was a sensation, Many people including scientists said that it was a fake: it was a combination of parts from other animals. However, it did exist in the Australian niche where it evolved.

I should be noted that this was in an era when the English were still struggling with Darwin's theory of survival of the fittest. The majority of the population still believed that God created Man. The Garden of Eden was foremost in their minds.

Today, the platypus' existence is accepted without question. There has not been a lot of fossil evidence about how it came to be. Recently, this gap has been filled by a fossil of an ancient duck-billed marine reptile. Like most fossils which illuminate family trees it was found in China.

Eohupehsuchus brevicollis lived 248 million years ago. Only two other examples of this creature have been brought to light, both in other parts of China. Like the platypus it was small for its time. It lived in an inland sea.

While its body proportions were different from the platypus, clear parallels can be seen: a broad body, no teeth and paddle arms for swimming. Eohupehsuchus brevicollis had a very short neck like the platypus. The fossil is an excellent specimen for research being nearly complete. It has evidence of being attacked, though it did survive this and lived for some time afterwards. The animal was a survivor of the mass extinction of the Permian era 252 million years ago.
Evolution by Ty Buchanan
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Fossil is an Ancestor of Man

We know that we are related to sea creatures. Finding which ones are close ancestors is the problem. Dr Garcia-Bellido holds that odd-looking fossils of Nesonektris had cartilage which has the same structure as the "tails" of human embryos.

Muscles latch on to notochord cartilage. Findings have been published in BMC Evolutionary Biology by universities of Adelaide and South Australia with the South Australian Museum. The University of New England also took part in the research.

The source of the 500 million year old fossil is Kangaroo Island. This region has some of the world's richest fossil beds. vetulicolians lived in the Cambrian period and were filter feeders. Their cartilaged-tails were used for propulsion. This type of connections with humans had been overlooked in the past.
Evolution by Ty Buchanan
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Fish Fossil Sheds More Light

There are new facts about the evolution of fish. An ancient fish fossil has provided preserved muscle tissue. European and Australian scientists have examined a placoderm fossil 380 million years old. Early fish did not have moving jaws with joints. Their mouths were fixed partially open, though they could still move.

Jaw structure was presumed to be like sharks, because that was taken to be a living example. The fossil has changed this assumption. It shows a pronounced shoulder structure. From this girdle neck muscles attached to a dermal joint. So the head moved relative to the body but the jaw did not. Sharks do not have joints in the neck - their necks are flexible.

Another difference is musculature in the abdomen much like four-limbed vertebrates such as horses. Rather than being a evolutionary step for four-legged animals it was fully developed by placoderms, the first vertebrate with armoured plates and no teeth.
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New Finds of Early Humans Do Not Change the Basic Theory

Darwin got it right. Well actually he may not have. Fossils of early humans do not alter basic scientific thought in relation to evolution, Finds do not show a linear development toward advanced Man. Evolution though does tend to predict what new discoveries show. Claims that a particular fossil find is a breakthrough are just not true.

New dinosaur fossils, however, tend to be groundbreaking with regular identification of new type of dinosaurs. Indeed, they seem to have roamed on every continent. The whole book on dinosaur evolution has not yet been written. Time will tell how clear an understanding of it we can get.  It seems evolution of dinosaurs is clearer than that of humans.

New research teams need to be formed to go to all parts of the world and seek answers to evolution of mammals and reptiles, if indeed dinosaurs were reptiles. Some specialists today even question this view.
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Power Generation Via Hydrogen Is Not Taking Off

It is amazing how people will see something new, then run with it to the extreme saying this will change the world. This is true for virtually all non-fossil energy producing systems, but all of them have drawbacks and none have revolutionized the power sector. The two major problems have been high cost and non constant energy production during the 24 hour period.

Scientists have worked on hydrogen systems for decades and success seems very distant. It is not being accepted for widespread use. Actually, hydrogen is a "byproduct" of energy production. When electricity is generated by any method the excess not used at a point in time is passed through water. It splits into oxygen and hydrogen via electrolysis with the fuel stored to be used in the future. When hydrogen is recombined with oxygen, electricity is generate. Heat from the process can also be used directly for heating purposes.

As with other environmentally friendly electricity producing methods time will tell if hydrogen is accepted for general use. Perhaps hydrogen can be made in significant quantities from solar and wind generation. It could potentially make for a hybrid system producing electricity 24 hours a day. Until now, governments have been the main source of funding for hydrogen experiments. Apparently, the private sector sees little future in it. For non-fossil energy systems to flourish it is necessary for the community to work together. Unfortunately, individualism is the norm. Perhaps this is why there is very little progress.

New Solar Power Station in Western Australia

Australia goes its own way in lower carbon power generation by opening a solar-diesel power station, the world's first, in Western Australia. Solar panels track the sun during the day. The station is built in a location that holds the record for the most days of maximum temperature. Use of the solar panels will lessen greenhouse gas emissions by 1119 tonnes a year.

the local Aboriginal community is fully supportive of the power plant in the Pilbara. Aboriginals named it Pippunyah, the name of the river nearby. Funding came from the Federal Government in its renewable remote power generation program via the Office of Energy in Western Australia.

It is unfortunate that solar power generation had to be combined with fossil fuel generation. Even getting natural gas there would have been better than diesel. It seems there is no perfect solution to the pollution problem. New systems only seem to meet requirements half way.
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Fossil Find Shines Light on an Ancient Whale

A fossil find in Victoria, Australia, throws light on the origin of baleen whales. The artifact is 25 million years old. It is the 45 cm long skull of Mammalodon colliveri. Information about it has remained open since its discovery in 1932.

Though it had teeth it spent its time sucking mud in the search for prey on the seafloor. A short, blunt snout made this possible. This type of feeding led to the filter method of modern whales. The baleen whale was only three meters long, a far cry from the monsters that followed. Its ancestors though were also very large.

Other fossils have been found in Torquay, Victoria, notably Janjucetus hunderi which was unique to the area. This region is believed to be the cradle of tiny whales. Some form of isolation must have occurred for this to happen.
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Giant Ants in Ancient North America

Big insects once roamed the US. They were very big. Ants were the size of small birds 50 million years ago. They are thought to have crossed the arctic land bridge that once existed between Europe and the US. The Green River site in Wyoming has given up many new finds in the past.

Bruce Archibald of Simon Fraser University in British Columbia noted that the fossil was similar to one found in Germany. Only the queen of the Dorylus wilverthi species of ant living today reaches this size. Fittingly, the new ant has been named Titanomyrma lubei. Louis Lube found the specimen. While this ant is big for North America, big ants probably lived in other parts of the world because large fossils of other creatures have been found there.

Large ants only live a tropical climate in the present so North America was tropical millions of years ago. It is a mystery how they crossed the temperate Arctic region then. For brief periods this area became quite warm, up to 8 degrees Celsius, though not tropical. Bursts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere from sediment was the culprit. With two sources for ancient giant ants now known it may be possible to identify where they originated.
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Fossil Find Throws Light on an Ancient Whale

A fossil find in Victoria, Australia, throws light on the origin of baleen whales. The artifact is 25 million years old. It is the 45 cm long skull of Mammalodon colliveri. Information about it has remained open since its discovery in 1932.

Though it had teeth it spent its time sucking mud in the search for prey on the seafloor. A short, blunt snout made this possible. This type of feeding led to the filter method of modern whales. The baleen whale was only three meters long, a far cry from the monsters that followed. Its ancestors though were also very large.

Other fossils have been found in Torquay, Victoria, notably Janjucetus hunderi which was unique to the area. This region is believed to be the cradle of tiny whales. Some form of isolation must have occurred for this to happen.

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