Showing posts with label neanderthal. Show all posts
Showing posts with label neanderthal. Show all posts

Humans and Denisovans had Similar Fingers

Fingers human-like fingers shown denisovane fossil finger Photos missing fossil show ancient hominins slimmer digits their Neanderthal relatives. Ewen Callaway Russian archeologists digging inside Denisova cave Western Siberia, Russia Bones belonging ancient hominins have been discovered Denisova Cave Siberia’s Altai mountains.Credit: Eddie Gerald/Alamy A new analysis finger bone used study Denisovans — group ancient humans identified 2010 — offers clues decade-long mystery surrounding important hominin fossils ever found. The study describes tip right-hand little finger, separated rest finger bone excavated 1 years ago. A digital reconstruction complete finger bone, phalanx, reveals Denisovans’ fingers were much more similar modern humans expected. “I’m happy we get something out,” says Eva-Maria Geigl, palaeogeneticist Institute Jacques Monod Paris, co-led study. “So far there nothing, phalanx lost.” Mum’s Neanderthal, Dad’s Denisovan: First discovery ancient-human hybrid Her team sequenced DNA missing fragment show matched rest fingertip bone, used photographs reunite two pieces digitally.work published September Science Advances1. “It’s not going revolutionize knowledge Denisovan morphology, adds little piece,” says Bence Viola, palaeoanthropologist University Toronto Canada part team. Denisovan discovery. The mystery surrounding lost piece began remote valley foot Altai Mountains southern Siberia, Russian archaeologists excavating Denisova Cave uncovered finger bone belonging group ancient humans 2008. Anatoly Derevianko, archaeologist Russian Academy Sciences Institute Archeology Ethnography Novosibirsk leading dig, decided divide bone send pieces two labs see DNA extracted either half. One fragments went Svante Pääbo, evolutionary geneticist Max Planck Institute Evolutionary Anthropology Leipzig, Germany. His team sequenced DNA discovered bone belonged lineage distinct modern humans Neanderthals. In January 2010, Pääbo several his colleagues flew Novosibirsk. Use ancient remains more wisely. That’s Derevianko told Pääbo’s team he divided bone two sent half Edward Rubin, geneticist then Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) California, se team been competing Pääbo’s sequence Neanderthal DNA. “We freaked bit,” remembers Viola, joined Pääbo trip. “We idea there second part.” Worried getting scooped, Pääbo his team raced report their discovery. They published fossil’s mitochondrial genome — short stretch maternally inherited DNA — March 20102. Several months later, they went reveal first complete nuclear genome Denisovan3.studies showed Denisovans were group extinct hominins were more closely related Neanderthals modern humans, they lived Siberian cave — probably across Asia — more 30,000 years ago. Denisovan distal phalanx bone fragment The whereabouts missing bone fragment still unclear.Credit: Eva-Maria Geigl The 2010 finding transformed cave world’s important archaeological sites. Researchers have found more ancient-human bones cave, including stunning discovery first-generation hybrid, Neanderthal mother Denisovan father. But Viola — analysed nearly every Denisovan fossil cave — says he never forgot second finger-bone fragment. “I’ve been wondering le time half would have looked like,” he says. “All I knew Berkeley.” Revisiting old bones According Geigl, Rubin, left LBNL 201 industry not reached comment, sent his half fossil her lab 2010. Pääbo’s team already published fossil’s mitochondrial genome. But Geigl hoped obtain nuclear DNA fossil, indicate much more hominin’s relationship humans Neanderthals.

Move over, DNA: ancient proteins starting reveal humanity’s history Initial efforts extract DNA bone failed, Geigl’s team worked developing methods. But Pääbo team published Denisovan nuclear genome, Rubin asked Geigl return fossil. She returned fragment 2011, able sample DNA take detailed photographs first. Geigl sat data years, 2016, she decided publish them, suggestion Pääbo. Her team sequenced mitochondrial genome discovered — unsurprisingly — exactly matched sequence Pääbo’s team published 2010. But digital reconstruction complete finger bone held surprise: bone slim, more fingers modern humans stout digits Neanderthals, even Denisovans more closely related Neanderthals.few.

Denisovan remains been discovered, including large molar teeth, tend not resemble modern humans. “Given limited skeletal remains definitively associated Denisovans, important discovery,” says Tracy Kivell, palaeoanthropologist University Kent, UK, not involved study.slender shape Denisovan finger suggests Neanderthals’ burlier fingers have evolved result strenuous their hands, she adds. Although story missing fragment become clearer, current whereabouts still unknown. According Derevianko, Rubin sent sample ancient-DNA lab Eske Willerslev University Copenhagen Natural History Museum Denmark 201 2012. Willerslev did not respond requests comment Nature’s news team. Pääbo his team grind portion their piece bone produce high-quality genome sequence returned rest Derevianko, Geigl unsure half she analysed gone. “It’s Sherlock Holmes story,” she says

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Massacres of Aboriginals
Massacres of Aboriginals

Another Pre-Human Detected in Papuan and Aboriginal DNA

Research shows Neanderthal man, Denisovan and another in DNA.
Paleontologist have all the answers about man. They have a complete map of the evolution of humans beings. If you think this way, you are wrong! Evolution to the present is just based on a few old bones.  Modern examination from other sources it changing established theory.  Neanderthal man Denisovan
Mortlock Islanders
Two prehumans are known: Neanderthals and Denisovans. However, genetic research has now shown that there are traces of another extinct human species in human DNA. Australian Aboriginals of north-east Australia and the people of Papua New Guinean carry these genes.
   Neanderthal man evolution
Astralo-Pacific people have about 2.8 per cent of Neanderthal in their genetic makeup. It was believed that another 6 per cent was from Denisovans. The latest research shows this estimate to be wrong. Only 1.11 is clearly Denisovan. This leaves 4+ per cent from another prehuman or maybe more sub-species.
   Neanderthal man.
Africa is truly our Garden of Eden.  Man is not the only species to have left Africa in steady waves. Neanderthals and perhaps Denovans left Africa too. It is believed that Denisovans were an off-shoot of Neanderthals. This should be treated very carefully, though. It could be the other way round!
 Evolution 
 
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THIRD APEMAN FOUND
Another Pre-Human Detected in Papuan and Aboriginal DNA research denisovan wrong shows genetic people human

Neanderthals and Denisovans Are in Heaven

Anthropology: Adam and Eve hominids in the Garden of Eden.
Humans were not alone on the evolutionary path. There would always be at least one more type of hominid existing nearby until the last 13,000 years (Hobbits). If the number of chromosomes was very close then fertile offspring were possible. The case for neanderthal closeness is still not yet known for sure. Some make bold claims about humans having neanderthal genes, but note that we did have a common ancestor.
"This is the Garden of Eden love, from the volcano God."
Take it with a pinch of salt about us being Neanderthal, Denisovan, human hybrids. This is fairytale stuff. Neanderthals were mainly in Europe and Denisovans were for the most part in southeast Asia. This would mean that humans from Africa would be genetically pure. However, the Neanderthal gene chains are also in them. Perhaps these genes are common to most hominids.

Only a few decades ago many scientists loudly proclaimed that people came out of Africa to populate the world only 80,000 years ago. This has now been pushed back to 200,000 years. When humans moved into Europe 40,000 years ago they did not have the largest brains. Neanderthals were hands down winners. Indeed, Homo erectus did draw and carve. And stone tools was old technology for 3 million years before the present.

Humans are not special. We did get down to a few dozen survivors at one time. It is just good luck for us that we are here and Neanderthals are not. Furthermore, perception of a God is not unique to humans. Burial practices go back 400,000 years. If there is an afterlife, expect to see a some Neanderthals and Denisovans walking around in heaven.
 Anthropology by Ty Buchanan 
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Genomics is Applied Genetics

In the study of humans migration, genomics and genetics really mean the same thing. Genetics is applied by genomics which analyses the structure of genomes. As well as migration much light has been shed on the origin of certain diseases.
The evolution of man humans
Alcoholism has evolved in man because it was useful as a curative agent. It first occurred naturally from stored grain. Beer jugs were found with Stone Age people. Because it came from collected grains, alcohol and bread probably came into human culture at the same time, Alcoholism is a side effect of evolution. Benefits for Man outweighed this issue and anyway it could have started commerce via trade in beverages.

Having a particular gene predisposes groups of humans to sickle cell disease. It was said to be a disease of black gene pools. However, white people can develop the condition if they have the gene. 

There is a predisposition gene for type 2 diabetes, though this malady can be caused by diet and taking medications over a Long period.  Other gene related diseases include: Parkinson's, irritable bowel, prostate cancer, cystic fibrosis, autism (questionable) and so on.

Contrary to the mistaken view put forward by some scientists who should know better, humans never mated with Neanderthals. Each had a different number of chromosome so fertile offspring were not possible (see: Britannica).
 Genetics by Ty Buchanan 
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Humans Crossing With Neanderthals and Denisovans is Rubbish

Much has been said about humans having mated with neanderthals. Scientists claim that all of us have Neanderthal genes. There is the real issue of humans and Neanderthal having a different number of chromosomes. It is known that if a horse is mated with a donkey, the result is an infertile mule. This holds true for all species, so how is it possible for two type of man who branched away from each other a very long time ago to have fertile offspring - the answer is it isn't possible.
Neanderthal
Another issue is the premise that Denisovans mated with Man. There is little evidence for this. Currently, we do not know the number of chromosomes Denisovans had. Yet most scientists treat the mixing hypothesis as fact.

Can scientists be wrong? They have of course been very mistaken in times past and the present is no different. Why do specialists accept theories that have not been tested by the well know scientific method. It must be the case that most of them accept that Santa exists and lives at the North Pole.

There is another answer as to why Neanderthals, Denisovans and Humans have some of the same genes, but no one ever says it. We all have a common ancestor. Why couldn't there be some of the ancient genes from this ancestor present in each species?  Look in the mirror and see if you have a flat forehead and a large brow ridge.  You do?  Then join the club!
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THEORY FAIRY
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#human #neanderthal #denisovan #ancient #man #anthropology #evolution  
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Man Can Survive a Major Disaster

If there is a major world disaster will Mankind survive? In the past our forebears got through environmental difficulties, so there is no reason to believe that this will not continue to happen. As technology becomes increasingly specialized, things we take for granted will be lost. Humanity will take a few steps back or fall right back into a survival-type culture.

The skill to print could end. Story telling could return as a way to pass on culture. Man has always been inquisitive about what lies over the horizon. Experimentation will still be the key to survival. In a major disaster only those species that can adapt will live through it.

Neanderthals were not smart enough to survive. This is despite their brains being larger than humans. The brains of Man obviously operated differently. This could have been the power of imagination. Neanderthals learned more by direct copying of behavior. Humans can deduce answers from information.

Another important factor is present in humans. We have the ability to live in close proximity to each other. Living in cities is a feature of Man. Neanderthals only existed in small groups. They could not "pool" knowledge and make it available to everyone. We develop and control our environment. Neanderthals did not.
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History
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Neanderthals and Humans Could Have Fertile Offspring

The presumption that humans and Neanderthals interbred is gaining ground among scientists, despite the two lines having a different number of chromosomes (this is not yet absolutely proven to be scientific fact). Horses and donkeys interbreed to produce mules. Occasionally a few of these mules are fertile and can have offspring, so a different number of chromosomes is not an absolute barrier.

Neanderthal DNA is present in humans. However, there is no mitochondrial DNA: this is passed along the line of the mother. Visual evidence of interbreeding can be observed. Tatjana Schmidt-Derstroff noted decades ago that there are two types of Australian Aboriginals, desert living long-legged gracillis and coastal living muscular robustus. Both are dark skinned. Robustus carry a red/blond haired gene (not passed on by shipwrecked European sailors). The more muscular type is roughly similar in features to Neanderthals. For the most part these two different kinds of Aboriginal remained separate, though some interbreeding did occur.  Today, most Aboriginals have part European ancestry.

Tatjana Schmidt-Derstroff is happy with the hypothesis that humans and Neanderthals had fertile offspring, along the male line of course. This would engender a male Neanderthal mating with a female human. With male offspring passing on respective genes. Ms Schmidt-Derstroff also holds that the major leap from Neanderthal to human is about to take place again to modern space-travelling humans. Well, this change is already taking place as people move to new countries and different "races" interbreed to create a new tan colored human.
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Anthropology

Cave Art in Spain Was Made by Neanderthals

It was believed that early humans painted the cave art in Europe. Scientists are leaning toward associating this art with Neanderthals. The old theory surmised that humans created cave art soon after they moved into Europe from Africa.

New tests show the paintings are older than first thought. They are now known to go back 41,000 years. This puts them clearly in the era of Neanderthals. Art was not a sudden achievement. It developed slowly over tens of thousands of years.

The age of cave paintings was established by U-series dating. Samples of calcite that directly covered the paintings were taken. Paintings in El Castilo Spain were dated specifically to 40,800 years ago. Art in other Spanish caves were pushed back in time from 17,000 to 35,000 years. At this time humans were new to Europe but Neanderthals had been for there much longer. Early jewelry and use of ochre were part of Neanderthal culture.
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Anthropology