Showing posts with label find. Show all posts
Showing posts with label find. Show all posts

Humans and Denisovans had Similar Fingers

Fingers human-like fingers shown denisovane fossil finger Photos missing fossil show ancient hominins slimmer digits their Neanderthal relatives. Ewen Callaway Russian archeologists digging inside Denisova cave Western Siberia, Russia Bones belonging ancient hominins have been discovered Denisova Cave Siberia’s Altai mountains.Credit: Eddie Gerald/Alamy A new analysis finger bone used study Denisovans — group ancient humans identified 2010 — offers clues decade-long mystery surrounding important hominin fossils ever found. The study describes tip right-hand little finger, separated rest finger bone excavated 1 years ago. A digital reconstruction complete finger bone, phalanx, reveals Denisovans’ fingers were much more similar modern humans expected. “I’m happy we get something out,” says Eva-Maria Geigl, palaeogeneticist Institute Jacques Monod Paris, co-led study. “So far there nothing, phalanx lost.” Mum’s Neanderthal, Dad’s Denisovan: First discovery ancient-human hybrid Her team sequenced DNA missing fragment show matched rest fingertip bone, used photographs reunite two pieces digitally.work published September Science Advances1. “It’s not going revolutionize knowledge Denisovan morphology, adds little piece,” says Bence Viola, palaeoanthropologist University Toronto Canada part team. Denisovan discovery. The mystery surrounding lost piece began remote valley foot Altai Mountains southern Siberia, Russian archaeologists excavating Denisova Cave uncovered finger bone belonging group ancient humans 2008. Anatoly Derevianko, archaeologist Russian Academy Sciences Institute Archeology Ethnography Novosibirsk leading dig, decided divide bone send pieces two labs see DNA extracted either half. One fragments went Svante Pääbo, evolutionary geneticist Max Planck Institute Evolutionary Anthropology Leipzig, Germany. His team sequenced DNA discovered bone belonged lineage distinct modern humans Neanderthals. In January 2010, Pääbo several his colleagues flew Novosibirsk. Use ancient remains more wisely. That’s Derevianko told Pääbo’s team he divided bone two sent half Edward Rubin, geneticist then Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) California, se team been competing Pääbo’s sequence Neanderthal DNA. “We freaked bit,” remembers Viola, joined Pääbo trip. “We idea there second part.” Worried getting scooped, Pääbo his team raced report their discovery. They published fossil’s mitochondrial genome — short stretch maternally inherited DNA — March 20102. Several months later, they went reveal first complete nuclear genome Denisovan3.studies showed Denisovans were group extinct hominins were more closely related Neanderthals modern humans, they lived Siberian cave — probably across Asia — more 30,000 years ago. Denisovan distal phalanx bone fragment The whereabouts missing bone fragment still unclear.Credit: Eva-Maria Geigl The 2010 finding transformed cave world’s important archaeological sites. Researchers have found more ancient-human bones cave, including stunning discovery first-generation hybrid, Neanderthal mother Denisovan father. But Viola — analysed nearly every Denisovan fossil cave — says he never forgot second finger-bone fragment. “I’ve been wondering le time half would have looked like,” he says. “All I knew Berkeley.” Revisiting old bones According Geigl, Rubin, left LBNL 201 industry not reached comment, sent his half fossil her lab 2010. Pääbo’s team already published fossil’s mitochondrial genome. But Geigl hoped obtain nuclear DNA fossil, indicate much more hominin’s relationship humans Neanderthals.

Move over, DNA: ancient proteins starting reveal humanity’s history Initial efforts extract DNA bone failed, Geigl’s team worked developing methods. But Pääbo team published Denisovan nuclear genome, Rubin asked Geigl return fossil. She returned fragment 2011, able sample DNA take detailed photographs first. Geigl sat data years, 2016, she decided publish them, suggestion Pääbo. Her team sequenced mitochondrial genome discovered — unsurprisingly — exactly matched sequence Pääbo’s team published 2010. But digital reconstruction complete finger bone held surprise: bone slim, more fingers modern humans stout digits Neanderthals, even Denisovans more closely related Neanderthals.few.

Denisovan remains been discovered, including large molar teeth, tend not resemble modern humans. “Given limited skeletal remains definitively associated Denisovans, important discovery,” says Tracy Kivell, palaeoanthropologist University Kent, UK, not involved study.slender shape Denisovan finger suggests Neanderthals’ burlier fingers have evolved result strenuous their hands, she adds. Although story missing fragment become clearer, current whereabouts still unknown. According Derevianko, Rubin sent sample ancient-DNA lab Eske Willerslev University Copenhagen Natural History Museum Denmark 201 2012. Willerslev did not respond requests comment Nature’s news team. Pääbo his team grind portion their piece bone produce high-quality genome sequence returned rest Derevianko, Geigl unsure half she analysed gone. “It’s Sherlock Holmes story,” she says

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KAI2 Improves Growth as Well as Germination After Fire

KAI2 improves plant growth after a fire germination
Why do plant seeds in Australia start germinating after a fire? It is because of Karrikin Insensitive2 (KAI2) a protein which has been present in plants for millions of years. KAI2 has been important for all plants for 400 million years.

When the KAI2 protein was removed from a higher, more recent plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, its leaves malformed. Yet splicing the KAI2 back by taking it from the ancient Selaginella resulted in improved A. thaliana growth, but it could no longer detect the presence of smoke the normal function of KAI2.

This finding shows the more general function of KAI2. It not only identifies karrikins in smoke, it is important for plant growth. "Sensing" is the main purpose of KAI2. Apparently it can be tuned to detect different things. This could help farmers control seed germination times.

Wheat is notorious for germinating in the grain during heavy rain periods. Being able to spray a chemical that stops this would save millions of dollars and improve crop yields. Furthermore, spraying to stop weeds from sprouting would be the supreme herbicide.
Biology by Ty Buchanan
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Fossil Find Shines Light on an Ancient Whale

A fossil find in Victoria, Australia, throws light on the origin of baleen whales. The artifact is 25 million years old. It is the 45 cm long skull of Mammalodon colliveri. Information about it has remained open since its discovery in 1932.

Though it had teeth it spent its time sucking mud in the search for prey on the seafloor. A short, blunt snout made this possible. This type of feeding led to the filter method of modern whales. The baleen whale was only three meters long, a far cry from the monsters that followed. Its ancestors though were also very large.

Other fossils have been found in Torquay, Victoria, notably Janjucetus hunderi which was unique to the area. This region is believed to be the cradle of tiny whales. Some form of isolation must have occurred for this to happen.
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Australpithecus sediba Is Not an Ancestor of Man

The Announcement that skeletons found in South Africa belong to a new species is premature.They were found in a cave near Johannesburg. The "new species" was named Australopithecus sediba. It was claimed to be the "rosetta stone" into the past. They were also the most complete skeletons ever discovered. The creatures walked upright, had long arms and powerful hands. Unfortunately, they were small brained.

Paleoanthropologists not involved in the find say the name chosen is just a "wastebasket" category. They are not ancestors of Man. Furthermore, some animals in the species could have had larger or smaller brains. It could still be transitional in evolution to Man, but very distant.

It may fit into Homo. Perhaps it is a sister species to Homo habilis. The brain size of Australopithecus sediba is the same as Homo floresiensis, the Hobbit, of Indonesia. The features in sediba are similar to those in other Homo species. Paleoanthropologists put very early finds in Homo. Sediba is not so unique as to have a lineage of its own. Indeed, Australopithecus africanus is older than sediba and africanus does have unique lineage. Sediba is too primitive to be a direct ancestor of Man. Older Homo species have features more like Man that sediba.
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Fossil Find Throws Light on an Ancient Whale

A fossil find in Victoria, Australia, throws light on the origin of baleen whales. The artifact is 25 million years old. It is the 45 cm long skull of Mammalodon colliveri. Information about it has remained open since its discovery in 1932.

Though it had teeth it spent its time sucking mud in the search for prey on the seafloor. A short, blunt snout made this possible. This type of feeding led to the filter method of modern whales. The baleen whale was only three meters long, a far cry from the monsters that followed. Its ancestors though were also very large.

Other fossils have been found in Torquay, Victoria, notably Janjucetus hunderi which was unique to the area. This region is believed to be the cradle of tiny whales. Some form of isolation must have occurred for this to happen.


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