Showing posts with label trees. Show all posts
Showing posts with label trees. Show all posts

Evolution of Homo Sapiens Resulted in Odd Niche Adaptations

Lost handwriting skills

Mankind has changed to adapt to new niches, not only with climate change but by people moving into new regions. It seems that specialist features and abilities are required to survive. However, this is not always the case. The narrow nasal structure of Caucasians is not absolutely necessary. Those of African descent live in northern Eurasia and North America. --
ones behaviour hunters innovation metascience dynamic learnability inherited intergenerational longevity demography paleo organisms cooperating specialize evolutionarily dna ecosystem community race isomorphic coevolutionary pool languages linguists psycholinguistic conformity pharmacopeia warfare neurobiological dualism mechanistic vitalism essentialism biochemistry ancestor common dominant gene–culture exaptation macromutations psychology theories culture paternal proliferation microbiology arboreality immunology hypersociality medicinal anatomy orthogenetic extinct progenitors multigeneration fertility unlinked biparental adulthood anthropogenic pigmentation colonization inuit pale disease taxonomy lifetimes -- 0 scholar cognitive human natural selection biology evolved species brain complex genes 0 ! scholar google language cognitive human theory humans intelligence science abstract press york sciences social openurl natural selection reasoning cooperation biology modern sci species pnas proc natl acad articles ability sociality cambridge brain complex evolutionary pinker mind crossref evolved psychology cognition pubmed know-how words space force gene usa traits wallace intuitive mechanisms physics behavior environment physical univ cultural search mental information communication knowledge free article mit news advantages part applied extended genes tools metaphorical history coevolution concepts variation adaptation learning speech metaphor thought eds features animals combination man long number individuals development grammar tooby similar people structures full text message email faq organisms survival burrow large turn evolve psychological matter suggest motion current abstraction e.g relationships source linguistic life rules shared scientific forced change ideas concrete culture light nature origins defenses latest sustainability animal grammatical theories forces faculties organism local objects generations childhoods main engage based authors feedback altruism cultures hominid living reciprocity position learn systems subject population process emergence design skills steven share submit emotions metaphors basic multiple major structure national academy menu editorial journal plants environmental purpose including explain explained substances power zoologically unusual weapons origin armadillo portals smoke vine lives biological good sentence benefit open unique find combinatorial complexity body support signs pressures fish group requires actions chemistry put creationism shows anthropology selected resources moral lineage possession user domains disorders fact sharing tool kind size causation related hominids role neuroscience memory organizations children authority high models indirect site institutions evidence domain jackendoff cosmides rev conceptual control colloquium gentner construction image study alerts featured topic scope special mathematics claimed lifestyle poisons ecosystem hypotheses coordinated generate wallace's deployed birth rates kinds reproduction individual exotic exercise trade range messages law hunting cooperative places habitats submission hypothesis cooperate ground knot exploit physiology greater entered extract hands exists result procedures recommend childhood permissions customs subscribe podcasts devore abilities archive classics front reviewers express groups darwin hyperdeveloped goods favors sentences ancestors exploited opportunities demands technology explanation relationship constructed causal skill include kin specific examples defined distinct philosophy additional adaptive extreme times cost food meanings yanomamö material larger parental sexuality environments idea comprise reciprocal highly apply genetics inferences bites application inference speaker syntactic sexual predicts effects enhanced single attempt forms key commodity content version cooking identified contemporary reflect extension family constructions rose object spatial universities goal review developmental mutated lisa michael methods supplement 8993-8999 pnas.0914630107 polite sense chimpanzees drive populations adapted reminding neural disorder parallel analogies interest person psychol oxford nowak contributions paper lee viking health core magnitude basis books genet architecture condition focus sign attractiveness ecological courtesy citation close board staff rights contact club subscription subscriptions access librarian log cart colloquia collected highlights policies keyword advanced codiscoverer alfred russel fully attention bicentennial reason plant degree ecology savage possesses fixed superior traps game world's puzzle paths beliefs desires complicated aspects speed stealth defend offenses arms processes account drugs raised governed foraging mating diets division develop feats apparent statistical prehistoric benefits phrases symbols intelligent gathering ancestral dog geometry foods multiplies combinations ecosystems unlimited parlayed reward genius internal prosper fruit mutation possibility entries entry negotiation form selecting limited serve feet vast suite slowly dig availability practical ears nutrients acquired learned dug entrance hole genome produce technological spot nonkin teleology sophisticated men depended political facilitated give advantage one's open-ended people's commonplace armor ape depend terms opportunity dependence tested confers diet offspring female growth question phenomena supported variables costs invent originally meat system prehensile outwit place department loyalty apes contract carnivory essence engineering productive altered depends require darwin's possessed impel testable prepositions estimate pair bipedality sources impossible generalized acquiring wrote need techniques profound convey spiritualism means proposed discovery consequence increase organs essences simply immaterial concentrated respect hierarchical organism's causing factor elements answer coin sequence kinship applications transmission shift call distribution structured approximate extinction computer invokes discoveries explains shown discovered phonological data agency paradox profit carried capacity years affect socially agricultural connect trait humans’ meaning context semantic info pdf concept listener impairment personality functional organ collection similarly amounts apparatus agreements units modeling auditory mode lead chagnon multiply decisions chemical universal case lifespans skin life-history obvious live capable inherent kaplan longer corporations governments folk confer readily capture owner coevolved conveys scenarios consists extraordinary state children's exchange required memorized care spontaneous listen affective historical notions move remind cutting futile line particulars set impetus participate realm extend declines co-opted analogical owned record variable logical thinking sam properties footprints parasite detect assembled symbolic treat puzzling foxp2 section suggests naturally successful reassign unprecedented ways aspm mindset selective designed evaluating lakoff talmy mail show contribute conservation recall endeavors specificity strategic eden feature norton harcourt brace experience universals conflict carey small-scale societies work american devices fiske spelke princeton sackler conclusion miller vargha-khadem hum behav nas footnotes references web boyd creating chicago acquisition ortony 2nd trends smart advances determinant goldin-meadow interface rogers john scopus making request oases proceedings doi wearable mendeley qnas infection pixabay pest issue address separate send page endnote manager tagged cookies! + tie evolution say homo he sapiens let resulted gov by sub odd of niche on adaptations up + $ aye evolution stay homo was sapiens hi resulted not by zap odd pad niche at adaptations me $ % of evolution run homo hi sapiens ho resulted ha by in odd on niche or adaptations an % ~ do evolution play homo yet sapiens to resulted as by so odd do niche up adaptations at ~ = cookies tagged manager endnote page send separate address issue pest pixabay infection qnas mendeley wearable doi proceedings oases request making scopus john rogers interface goldin-meadow determinant advances smart trends 2nd ortony acquisition chicago creating boyd web references footnotes nas behav hum vargha-khadem miller conclusion sackler princeton spelke fiske devices american work societies small-scale carey conflict universals experience brace harcourt norton feature eden strategic specificity endeavors recall conservation contribute show mail talmy lakoff evaluating designed selective mindset aspm ways unprecedented reassign successful naturally suggests section foxp2 puzzling treat symbolic assembled detect parasite footprints properties sam thinking logical variable record owned analogical co-opted declines extend realm participate impetus set particulars line futile cutting remind move notions historical affective listen spontaneous care memorized required exchange children's state extraordinary consists scenarios conveys coevolved owner capture readily confer folk governments corporations longer kaplan inherent capable live obvious life-history skin lifespans case universal chemical decisions multiply chagnon lead mode auditory modeling units agreements apparatus amounts similarly collection organ functional personality impairment listener concept pdf info semantic context meaning humans’ trait connect agricultural socially affect years capacity carried profit paradox agency data phonological discovered shown explains discoveries invokes computer extinction approximate structured distribution call shift transmission applications kinship sequence coin answer elements factor causing organism's hierarchical respect concentrated immaterial simply essences organs increase consequence discovery proposed means spiritualism convey profound techniques need wrote acquiring generalized impossible sources bipedality pair estimate prepositions testable impel possessed darwin's require depends altered productive engineering essence carnivory contract apes loyalty department place outwit prehensile system meat originally invent costs variables supported phenomena question run growth female offspring diet confers tested dependence opportunity terms depend ape armor commonplace people's open-ended one's advantage give facilitated political depended men sophisticated teleology nonkin spot technological produce genome hole entrance dug learned acquired nutrients ears practical availability dig slowly suite vast feet serve limited selecting form negotiation entry entries possibility mutation fruit prosper internal genius reward parlayed unlimited ecosystems combinations multiplies foods geometry dog ancestral gathering intelligent symbols phrases benefits prehistoric statistical apparent feats develop division diets mating foraging governed raised drugs account processes arms offenses defend stealth speed aspects complicated desires beliefs paths puzzle world's game traps superior fixed possesses savage ecology degree plant reason bicentennial attention fully russel alfred codiscoverer advanced keyword policies highlights collected colloquia home cart log librarian access subscriptions subscription club contact rights staff board close citation courtesy ecological attractiveness sign focus condition architecture genet books basis magnitude core health viking lee research paper contributions nowak oxford psychol person interest analogies parallel disorder neural reminding adapted populations drive chimpanzees sense polite pnas.0914630107 8993-8999 supplement methods michael lisa mutated developmental review goal universities spatial object rose constructions family extension reflect contemporary identified cooking version content commodity key forms attempt single enhanced effects predicts sexual syntactic speaker inference application bites inferences genetics apply highly reciprocal government comprise idea environments sexuality parental larger material yanomamö meanings food cost times extreme adaptive additional philosophy distinct defined examples specific kin include skill causal constructed relationship explanation technology demands opportunities exploited ancestors sentences favors goods hyperdeveloped darwin groups express reviewers front classics archive abilities devore podcasts subscribe customs permissions childhood recommend procedures result exists hands extract entered greater physiology exploit knot ground cooperate hypothesis submission habitats places cooperative hunting law messages range trade exercise exotic individual reproduction kinds rates birth deployed wallace's generate coordinated hypotheses ecosystem poisons lifestyle claimed mathematics special scope topic featured alerts study image construction gentner colloquium control conceptual rev cosmides jackendoff domain evidence institutions site indirect models high authority children organizations memory neuroscience role hominids related causation size kind tool sharing fact disorders domains user possession lineage moral resources selected anthropology shows creationism put chemistry actions requires group fish pressures signs support body complexity combinatorial find unique open benefit sentence good biological lives vine smoke portals armadillo origin weapons unusual zoologically power substances explained explain including purpose environmental plants journal editorial menu academy national structure major multiple basic metaphors emotions submit share steven skills design emergence process population subject systems learn position reciprocity living hominid cultures altruism feedback authors based engage main childhoods generations objects local organism faculties forces theories grammatical animal sustainability latest defenses origins nature light culture concrete ideas change forced scientific shared rules life linguistic source relationships e.g abstraction current motion suggest investment matter psychological evolve turn large burrow survival organisms faq email message text full structures people similar tooby grammar development individuals number long man combination animals author features eds thought metaphor speech learning adaptation variation concepts coevolution history metaphorical tools genes extended applied part advantages news mit article free knowledge communication information mental search cultural univ physical time environment behavior physics mechanisms intuitive wallace traits usa gene force space words know-how pubmed cognition psychology evolved crossref mind pinker evolutionary complex brain cambridge sociality ability articles acad natl proc pnas species sci modern biology cooperation reasoning natural openurl social sciences york press abstract science selection intelligence humans theory human cognitive language google scholar = || developmental, evolving, flora, ecosystem, trees, plants, fauna, skeleton, fossil, 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African and European evolutionary traits

Smart Fox Follows Hunting Dog

Doggy I am following you
"Hey, look behind dog.  No don't!"
▶ Cannine is followed by Vulpes who is very clever comical dog fox pictures rat perch whale gold dolphin horse monkey butterfly bird gecko boar comical to pictures penguin rhinoceros weasel bat pelican owl mouse cow sheep elephant finch comical on dog fox up thrush jackal blackbird emu elk crab Orangutan carp tadpole bug seal comical if dog fox an pictures goat snail possum swan vulture baboon zebra crocodile canary marlin deer comical as fox follows dog at pictures chimp tiger fish lobster bass goldfish budgie snake albatross flea beetle comical go it pictures amusing dingo moose wolf toad hunting turtle chimpanzee puma play eagle platypus comical or fox hunting dog of pictures seagull wallaby ostrich at spider magpie robin seahorse shark octopus an fox follows dog wombat tortoise ape frog squid prawn squirrel lizard wildebeest brown vulpes to ◀

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▶ | i smart at timing animals peculiar odd free sex playing food house carpet chair sofa settee couch | photo photos funny measuring of timing| smart vulpes ◀

Sulphur-Crested Cockatoo

  A popular bird of the Australian country sulphur in crested of cockatoo john brown richard attenborough campaign support commons parliamentary eu courts sulphur option clear am cockatoo excellent title breathtaking highlights niceties government didn’t sulphur on crested as cockatoo household formal sudden sovereignty official general power battle due stronger sulphur off crested confident parties particular theresa supremacy mp3 edition statement vote may sulphur it crested on cockatoo fuller elete referendum not court supreme publication brazenness remainers propriety daniel food telegraph high does case victorian election pro-eu tack ultimate process prime article approval cross-party sheer somersault parliament train inevitably legal personal everyone it policy gravy british was constitutional | |
Sulphur-crested Cockatoo
This friendly parrot visit Australian gardens and wander around searching for seeds. One of the most common species are Sulphur-crested Cockatoos. The bright yellow crest is its most notable feature. Another is its squawky screech which is ideal for mimicking the human voice.

The birds nest in woody areas breeding in tree hollows. Three eggs are the norm for each clutch and they hatch in 30 days. Adults and young are attacked by predators such as owls, goannas, currawongs, butterbirds and ravens. When feeding, several birds stand guard and let out a very loud warning squawk.
◆ Australiana 
| blog not sulphur-crested. |

Lace Monitor - Australiana

The Lace Monitor lizards in an Australiana icon.
There are several kinds of goanna in Australia. The largest is the Lace Monitor, Varannus varius. It lives in trees and in summer it is very active hunting for food. In winter it slows down and spends its days resting in hollows in trees.
Lace Monitor
They often hang around picnickers looking for food scraps. Some people fear goannas, but for the most part the reptile is harmless - they could hardly swallow a human whole. They would rather run than bite a large living animal: their main target is carrion.

When male Lace Monitors mate they go through the set patterns of who is the strongest to get the female.  Having young is an easy matter. A female lays her eggs in a termites nests which stays at a steady 31°C.

Aboriginals used goanna oil to ease body pain and as a protective layer on wounds. Early European settlers used the oil on guns as it was a good substitute for standard lubricating oil.   Goanna linament does not contain any Goanna oil because killing the animal is illegal. This stops the oil being put to test - folk lore says that if put in a glass jar it will seep through the bottom and be underneath in the morning. Rogue research shows this claim to be right. This is a very interesting property and could possible be put to a good use!

Anyway, we will have to live with the saying: "Flat out like a lizard drinking". Yes, their tongues move very fast when they drink water.
lace, monitor, lizard, flat out like a lizard drinking, flat, out, like, lizard, drinking, reptile, australian, picnickers, carrion, food, trees, live

Plant Chemistry Indicates a Very Hot Future

Chemistry: Stomata on plant leaves shows the way to predict climate change.
It looks like the future is going to be very hot - in Asia at least. Oddly it will not get drier. With more carbon around plants will not need as much water, so grass will grow everywhere. A 5 degree rise in temperature is expected by mid-century. High humidity will make life unbearable..
Stomata on plant leaves
Plants have a significant effect on the climate in general. This has been ignored in the past. Scientists are now examining it. More efficient use of water means less water in the atmosphere which increases temperature during the day.  Spring will arrive earlier as the climate itself changes.

A study of stomata, tiny spores on leaves involved in carbon dioxide absorption and the shedding of water, has provided information on how plants affect the weather. It was initially for understanding how plants work, but it has ultimately been applied to the study of climate change.
 Chemistry bny Ty Buchaan 
 Australian Blog
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Science Holds That Australia is Evergreen

Science: Fagus Nothofagus gunnii is Australia's only temperate deciduous tree.
Australia has always been very hot. So hot in fact that only a few deciduous trees ever evolved. True some have been brought from other countries and the trees do grow in the cooler regions of Australia today. However, except for small pockets in the tropics evergreens predominate.

Fagus Nothofagus gunnii Australia's only temperate deciduous tree

Trees which drop there leaves prefer a fixed unchanging climate. Australia is where the unexpected happens. Like the present where we are having a long hot end to summer and it is unusually wet. Evergreens can adapt and take off when conditions are favorable. When deciduous trees lose there leaves it could rain heavily, but they can no longer absorb the moisture. Conversely, putting out leaves when it dry for months on end is totally ineffective. Hold onto your leaves is the moto. When it rains evergreens are ready to push on to further growth.

Australia has one lonely temperate deciduous tree. And wouldn't you know it, the tree only grows in Tasmania, which gets the icy wind from Antarctica. These winds are always there in winter so the deciduous beech or Fagus ("Nothofagus gunnii") puts on a fabulous autumn leaf display then goes dormant during winter.
 Science by Ty Buchanan 
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Australia has only one temperate deciduous tree Fagus Nothofagus gunnii all evergreen trees on the continent articles news politics economics society anthropology historiography history sociology people nations country asia europe africa u.s. south america central Mediterranean eastern western interesting funny technology free news sex

Koalas Know What to Eat

Koalas may look dozy and stupid. However, they are really smart. Nature has given them a strong identification for what is good to eat. The nutritional quality of eucalyptus leaves determines the koala population in a given area.

Koalas need nitrogen to make energy, though they move very slowly. Without this valuable mineral they would simply not survive. Eucalyptus trees also contain toxins, a potential death threat to the animal.

Eight species of eucalyptus were tested. It was found that koalas stayed away from trees carrying toxins and were attracted to those high in nitrogen.  They obviously know what is good them.  The search for food dominates their lives.

If this identification of superior food is true for koalas it must be the case for other animals. They are intrinsically guided to sources of higher quality food. Dogs for example do know which type of grass to eat to solve a health problem. It is unusual for dogs to eat grass, but sometimes they do.

If good food is scarce which it is in Australia, it is logical that sensory systems of animals would evolve to identify sources of better nutrition. In the future, environmentalists should examine the quality of food in a habitat before re-introducing endangered animals.  The carrying capacity of the environment affects its carrying capacity.
Science by Ty Buchanan
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Aboriginal Subsistence Fires Benefit the Ecosystem

Bush fires are natural in Australia. Far from being a curse, they benefit the environment and wildlife generally. Of course this has to be qualified by houses being destroyed and injuries to people. Aboriginals have been intentionally lighting fires for thousands of years.

Actually, it has a positive impact on kangaroo evolution. A fire promotes an increase in kangaroo numbers. To get the greatest benefit the best time for a burn-off  can be identified. Human subsistence is crucial in managing this. It compliments the ecosystem.

Modern farming is detrimental to the way wildlife functions. The system is thrown off-balance. Stopping the burn-off and mono cropping changes everything. Australia needs more burning, not less. Authorities are following the wrong policy. Leaving native trees to grow tall can only lead to eventual disaster as a massive fire results as time passes.

Managed fires provide more food for animals as new shoots appear. Animals can also hide from predators in patches of older growth in the flatter landscape. It is only in farming areas that kangaroos increase to pest proportions. There is a natural peak in regions still controlled in the traditional way by Aboriginals.
Anthropology by Ty Buchanan
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     Australian Blog                         

Bee Gee Dogs

The Bee Gees
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Funny Animal Photos
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Bushmeat Trade Is Depleting Natural Forest

Bushmeat is not just a problem in Africa. Asian countries have the same problem, as the demand for meat from wild animals increases. Taking animals from tropical forest changes the whole ecosystem. It is common sense really. As the number of creatures feeding on vegetation and other animals decline there is an abundance of vegetation growth and remaining fauna.  More growth kills off food for these animals.

While some plants increase, others decline.  Even the amount of vegetation not consumed can fall.  Uneaten vegetation crowds out growth for all, so saplings do not grow tall. Plants need animals to disperse seeds. Consequently, the variety of plants falls.

Just two decades ago the Lambir Hills National Park in Sarawak was pristine. There was an abundance of animals and trees. Now all the large animals have been killed off by hunters after a profit.

Once such dramatic change occurs there is no way back. The large animals will not breed back to original numbers. The damage also impacts on remaining animals who find their usual food source is no longer plentiful.
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Rain Forest in Northern Australia Doing Well

The northern part of Australia is getting hotter, but it is no drier. A comparison of data from the 1950s and the present shows the borders between rain forest and eucalyptus forest remained the same. However, the density of rain forest increased by 732 ha. Neither drainage, geology, topography, aspect or elevation are responsible. The climate has definitely changed. Despite a series of El Nino dry spells since the 1950s, the country is becoming wetter.

This rain forest expansion has slowed over the last 2000 years, with 25 per cent being tall open forest. Eucalyptus forests are spread out in irregular shaped pockets which are very stable. Higher CO2 is responsible for the increasing density of rain forest. The humidity keeps damage from fires low.

Overall, this is good news for the world generally. Brazilian rain forest stores 250-300 C ha–1 (carbon per hectare). Though Australian rain forest stores less, it is still significant. There is a possibility that local factors in Australia are having this effect. Yet indicators do point to global warming.
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Top Predators Are Crucial in Keeping Ecosystems in Balance

Mankind's actions is affecting the balance of animal life on the planet. Herbivores and their predators are declining in all regions. When a top predator ceases to exist the animal environment is no longer in balance.

Focusing on individual animals is faulty research. It is important to examine The way an animal fits into the whole system. The study of top predators such as lions, wolves, and sharks is difficult. How do you test how an ecosystem would function without them? Research to date shows that losing top animals causes damaging effects from the top down. For example too many herbivores creates deforestation because they eat the shoots of young trees sprouting from the ground.

Leopards declined in Africa then baboons increased in number moved into town and spread intestinal parasites to humans. Reducing the number of great wales has released carbon into the atmosphere: their feces stored carbon which fell to the ocean floor.

In the past animal parks have been created which intentionally left out top predators. This was clearly a mistake. There was no way the system could be in balance without them.
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