Showing posts with label gene. Show all posts
Showing posts with label gene. Show all posts

Misleading DNA Testing for Herpes, Alzheimer's and Coeliac Disease

Genetic testing should not be used for herpes, Alzheimer's or Coeliac disease.
It seems that genetic testing is not all good for health problems. MedicineWise, a body of doctors and patients, has released an advisory list for scientists. DNA testing should no be used for coeliac disease, nor for herpes or Alzheimer's.
DNA Testing
Identifying a "causative" gene only indicates a probability. Indeed, screening for herpes in genetic testing for sexually transmitted disease is a misuse of resources.  Millions of dollars of government funding is wasted every year. herpes

A DNA finding is not a black and white issue. Gene determination is not 100 per cent. Many people with a "faulty" gene do live without ever getting the so called predetermined disease. Furthermore, patients can be falsely reassured by a DNA test.

Coeliac, disease, Alzheimer's, herpes, health, genetics, false, predetermined, wrong, belief, faulty, gene

For 50,000 Years Australian Aboriginals Were Genetically Pure

Genetics: Australian Aboriginal stone tools use was made within the Aboriginal gene pool.
Australian Aborigines have been isolated on this vast continent for 50,000 until Europeans came and messed everything up. DNA sequencing shows Aboriginals were pure for this whole period.

Contrary to the view held by many scientists for centuries, people did not arrive from India 4,000 years ago. Seafarers from India and Southeast Asia did stop here to get fresh water and herbs to treat constipation. Yes, this is true.
Australian Aboriginal stone bladed knife

Data tracing the Y chromosome from father to son shows no Asian genes in their profile. Aboriginals were the first people out of Africa. Once they reached Australia no more came from Asia. The out of Africa theory has now been pushed back 200,000 years. There is no real evidence of where these people went as far back as that.

Tasmanian Aboriginals are a mystery. All have now died out so we will never know if they came here before mainland Aboriginals. Their DNA could have been different to mainland Aboriginals. They certainly did not know how to light fire. "Flames" were stole one to the other.

It was thought that because Aboriginals had an abrupt change in culture particularly in regard to stone tools that there must have been an outside influence, but this wrong. The change was made within the Australian gene pool.
 Genetics by Ty Buchanan 
 Australian Blog
            Australian Blog   Adventure Australia
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Schizophrenia Gene Found

The gene responsible for schizophrenia has been found. Contrary to the popular view the ailment doesn't only cause multiple personality issues. It has three variants: 1) Positive, causing delusions, dysfunctional thoughts, movement irregularities and hallucinations; Negative, unhappiness, not finishing activities, reduced speaking and low bodily expression; and Cognitive, poor decision making, low attention, memory problems.
schizophrenia sufferer
Ten in a thousand people suffer from schizophrenia. It usually begins before the age of 30 years. In 2014 an international program was organized to isolate the causative gene. It has been identified in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The C4 gene goes wild in sufferers, binding to more foreign molecules. This reduces the synaptic connections in the brain.

Hopefully, a new more specific medication can be produced from the research data. Currently, drugs are not effective because the target has been unclear.  lifelong treatment is necessary involving medication to smooth-out symptoms.  Ironically, psychological therapy has been practised.  This now seems to be the wrong thing to do if it is cause by a gene.
 Genetics by Ty Buchanan 
 Australian Blog
            Australian Blog   Adventure Australia
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A Genetic Cause for Some With Gender Issues

Person with a gender issue
The reason why people feel that they were born in the wrong body in regard to being male or female is motivational. It can be genetic or cultural in nature. It is complicated. Like homosexuality there could be social reasons why this path is chosen. It could be enculturation as a child. On the other hand, individuals just have the feeling that behaving in such a way is natural for them.

Scientists have found that some people have an identification problem due to a genetic "condition". It is unfortunate that it has been called a disorder. An emotive argument is not needed. It has been given a name: craniosynostosis. The FGFR2 gene is mutated and causes sex reversal in the XY chromosomes.

About two per cent of the general population is born with a gender issue. This can have physical consequences such as endocrine complications, infertility or gonadal cancer. A baby born this way faces multiple surgeries. It should be noted, however, that people with a genetic cause for intersexuality number only 30 per cent of total "sufferers". Having an individual register with community-based support bodies is claimed to be beneficial, but this is unproven.
Genetics by Ty Buchanan
            Australian Blog   Adventure Australia
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Gene Bank Needed to "Save" Endangered Native Animals

There is no way that Australia can prevent the extinction of some native animal species. Some can  be preserved with a national gene bank. Though a seed bank has already been set up to save native flora, nothing is planned for fauna.

Present debate is centered on the loss of the northern and southern gastric brooding frog. If a gene bank had existed the frog would have been preserved. Australia has the worst record of native animals going extinct than anywhere else, not something to be proud of. Over 40 birds and mammals have disappeared since European settlement.

Because government has been slow in allocating resources, private organizations have started gene banks. Indeed Taronga Conservation society Australia has stored genes from 20 native animals. This is far from adequate. Over 2,000 species need preservation.

With the Taronga Conservation Society Australia, the Animal Gene Storage and Resource Centre of Australia at Monash University has a total of 100 endangered species in storage. Funding from the public and enterprise supports these "frozen" storage facilities. Nothing has been added for four years due to lack of resources. Looking the other way is not the solution.
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Conservation by Ty Buchanan
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Australian and Mediterranean Great White Shark Evolution

Luck plays a large part in evolution. Climate suddenly changes and if by chance a species of animal carries suitable genes to flourish in the new environment that animal lives on. Other species die off because they cannot cope.

New findings about the great white shark highlights this. Australian great whites and the Mediterranean type have genes that point to common ancestry. It is believed that a few related female sharks split up. Some going north to the Mediterranean from the larger gene pool in the south, or they peeled off from the main group in the Atlantic some going north the others going south. Narrow channels in the Mediterranean stopped this group from rejoining the Australian gene pool.

This happened 450,000 years ago. Mutations since that time make the timeline clear. It is believed that swordfish and tuna the main food of the great white also split off from the their main groups. Great white sharks followed the food supply.
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Stopping the Spread of the Complex Red Fire Ant

Australia is fighting against the spread of red fire ants. This pest has invaded other countries such as the US. Nothing seems to work to stop their malicious takeover. They give a nasty bite. It was thought to be a simple kind of ant but studies have shown it to be a complex creature.

It has two distinct variants in its social structure. Normally colonies keep their distance. On the other hand, many colonies do form a supercolony where queens work together and breed in safety. Ants of the supercolony do kill queens of isolated colonies.

The ants are different genetically. Queens of individual colonies are fatter. This is to feed the first larvae when they start the colony. Queens who work together never need the "boost" fat. The change of a single gene dramatically changes physicality and behavior. It is contentious as to whether there will be an evolutionary winner. We just do not know at this stage.

It is hoped that chemicals producing violent behavior can be identified and used against the pest. Could this be interfering in the evolution of a species? Of course it is. We have been selecting for preferential genes in many animals and plants for thousands of years.
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Islander Blondes Are Natural

All black people have black hair - right? This is an incorrect assumption. When Europeans first arrived in Australia they found some blonde Aboriginals. They thought that White sailors must have been shipwrecked off the coast and took Aboriginal wives.

In the Solomon Island near northern Australia 10 per cent of black people have blonde hair. The sun has not bleached the hair white. European sailors are not responsible either. It is a random gene that causes it. This is proven as the tone of blonde is different from Europeans.

A group of Islanders were tested for gene structure: forty two with dark hair and 43 'blondes'. The pigmentation gene was either coded with a "c" which produced blond haired people or 'T' giving dark hair. It is a recessive gene which means both parents must have the blond gene to have a blond child.
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Gene Therapy on the Brain Dangerously Changes Neuron Structure

Gene therapy for brain injuries and illnesses may be a good thing, but this treatment changes the shape of brain cells. Researchers in Western Australia say there is nothing to worry about because damaged brain cells regenerate or live longer. They say this when there is no proof that in the long term everything will be alright.

They say it is wonderful how brains cells function better after nine months of treatment. Apparently, the neurons become round due to new growth-promoting genes that stimulate them. The fact that surrounding genes away from the treatment area also change is in my opinion something to worry about. Obviously, when this occurs it cannot be reversed.

Doctors admit that the way neurons deal with information after treatment is never the same again. Furthermore, they suspect that the long-term effects may not be beneficial to the patient. It is a good thing that researchers are looking for a way to stop gene therapy in its tracks if anything goes wrong.
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Dangers of Gene Manipulation

The war over genetic manipulation of crops and the human body has not yet been won be either side. Recently Greenpeace destroyed a crop of modified wheat that had been genetically altered to raise fiber content which was intended to reduce bowel cancer. Cross contamination of non-modified crops on farms adjacent to land where GM food is grown was given as the reason for the attack.

There are many dangers with gene replacement technology:
  • Possible birth defects
  • Anti-biotic resistance
  • Control of patented GM seeds
  • Vertical control of food chain
  • Changes to soil balance
  • Horizontal gene change to related crops
Both sides of Australian politics support gene manipulation. Just why this is the case is a big question. Many Australians are troubled by GM use, though not so much by gene treatment in medicine. Like the nuclear power disaster in Japan, one gene related "accident" may end the optimism.
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