Showing posts with label dry. Show all posts
Showing posts with label dry. Show all posts

Science Holds That Australia is Evergreen

Science: Fagus Nothofagus gunnii is Australia's only temperate deciduous tree.
Australia has always been very hot. So hot in fact that only a few deciduous trees ever evolved. True some have been brought from other countries and the trees do grow in the cooler regions of Australia today. However, except for small pockets in the tropics evergreens predominate.

Fagus Nothofagus gunnii Australia's only temperate deciduous tree

Trees which drop there leaves prefer a fixed unchanging climate. Australia is where the unexpected happens. Like the present where we are having a long hot end to summer and it is unusually wet. Evergreens can adapt and take off when conditions are favorable. When deciduous trees lose there leaves it could rain heavily, but they can no longer absorb the moisture. Conversely, putting out leaves when it dry for months on end is totally ineffective. Hold onto your leaves is the moto. When it rains evergreens are ready to push on to further growth.

Australia has one lonely temperate deciduous tree. And wouldn't you know it, the tree only grows in Tasmania, which gets the icy wind from Antarctica. These winds are always there in winter so the deciduous beech or Fagus ("Nothofagus gunnii") puts on a fabulous autumn leaf display then goes dormant during winter.
 Science by Ty Buchanan 
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Australia's Bird the Emu

Early European settlers were amazed by the emu.  Governor Lachlan Macquarie was so impressed that, in 1822, he sent two emus as gifts to the Governor-General of India, the Marquis of Hastings.  When Macquarie set sail from Australia back to England on the ship Surry, he wrote that voyaging with the passengers were "pets" that included six emus, travelling in roomy well aired pens  well-aired pens. The animals were to be given as gifts to friends and patrons of Governor Macquarie back in England. Unfortunately many of the pets, including one of the largest emus died on the trip.
Emu with young chicks
In l791 John Harris, who arrived in the new colony as a surgeon, wrote that emus were swifter than the fleetest of greyhounds. Emu eggs were described as dark Green with little black specks the of pins.  It is a little larger than goose eggs.  The emu is Australia’s largest bird standing up to 2 metres high. lt has wings but it can°t fly. lt can run really quickly around 50 kilometres per hour. The legs are also yery powerful and used for fighting, especially if males are fighting over females. Emus are common throughout mainland Australia but not in dense rainforest and urbanised areas. They are highly nomadic, which means they must move as they need in search of food, water and shelter.

An emu°s courtship is a boisterous affair. There ISs lots of bobbing up and down, weaying and dipping, throat drumming, grunting and fluffing of feathers.  Mating begins late in December: The female flattens a platform of grass into a large nest and lays her clutch of between 7 and 11 dark green eggs lthough it could be as high as 20.  lf it is a good season and there is plenty of rain she might lay one or two more clutches with different males.

After laying her eggs she leaves. The male has the sole responsibility for parenting.  When the eggs are laid, the male gets broody and begins incubation before the clutch is completed. The female stops mating with the male but might continue to lay eggs in the nest. which are fertilised by other males. It takes 56 days of incubation before the eggs hatch and striped chicks appear, usually in early spring. During this time the male emu sits on the eggs. rarely leaying the nest and only standing to turn the eggs every few hours.  He doesn't eat or drink. Drawing on fat reserves, he looses about eight kilograms.
Biology by Ty Buchanan
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emu australian bird

Frog Leaf Umbrella

"Will it ever stop raining?"
Funny Animal Pictures
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Petrichor the Smell Before Rain

Man like other animals has inherited a fine sense of smell from ancestors who did not have technology to know things that would help them survive. The environment gives out smells when something changes. Because we now mostly live indoors these smells do not come to our attention. However, they still exist.
Petrichor the smell before rain mattiak ka attar
Before it begins to rain the air falls and oil is released from the earth. A special odour is notable. CSIRO has named this smell "petrichor". It seems no one had given it a named before. The particular smell was made public in 1964 when Isabel Bear wrote a paper which was published in Nature journal. Mineralogists were first aware of it and mentioned the odour in text books but little was made of the smell.

Aboriginals would have know of it because oils given off before rain are stronger after drought. The word "mattiak ka attar" is used in Asia to describe the odour trapped in sandalwood oil to enhance the perfume.

Scientists at CSIRO identified a yellowish colored oil on soil and rocks that was created by moisture. Humidity is the trigger: water droplets form in crevices thus leaching the oil. It becomes stronger when it actually rains. The smell gets into the wind and is picked up by mammals.
Chemistry by Ty Buchanan
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Australian Leaders Wear Ear Muffs to Keep Out Global Warming

Prime Minister Tony Abbott and his mate Maurice Newman are both as thick as a post. They are both climate change skeptics. Business advisor Maurice Newman wants a Royal Commission into the Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) claiming that it has doctored temperatures to support global warming.

If anyone is looking for a phantom in the cupboard it is the couple above. After all, Tony Abbott blindly believes that there is a God. How stupid is that in this day and age - religious fanatics not withstanding? In regard to God, you can knock on the door but there is no one home.

So the Australian weather authority is lying. What about weather departments in other countries? The poles are clearly melting. Global warming is a fact. Take note skeptics: scientists are telling the truth.

That is the trouble with "businessmen": they don't want a free market; they want a fixed market. They want to legislate to ban any reports of global warming because it is bad for business.

In the long run Tony Abbott's removal of the carbon tax will make him look ridiculous. Other countries will eventually take action to curb world pollution. More natural disasters due to a hotter planet will prove a cost too hard to bear.
Science by Ty Buchanan
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Hot La Niñas Will be Normal

We are getting very hot conditions with flooding. This is seen by many as unusual. Australia has very hot dry weather followed by cooler wet weather in its regular pattern. There is a 100 year cycle in El Niño and La Niña events.  In other words severity peaks every century.

Australia is currently in a transition period.  The La Niña could continue or it could change to El Niño.  There is presently a lot of rain. Oddly there is also a drought inland. If it were an El Niño cycle things would be a lot worse. It seems global warming is making La Niña years very hot.

Australia is now getting hot La Niñas along with very hot El Niños. This is bad for the whole world because all continents are affected by weather in the Pacific Ocean.

Some El Niños reach a critical temperature with dry periods being severe. Global warming means that more of them will go over this critical point. The average of extreme El Niños has been one in twenty years.

Australians fear hot dry periods. This was the reason for Queensland's over-investment in bringing water to Brisbane. Now many say it was money wasted, but in the future this capital outlay could pay for itself. The hot dry weather will return and 40 degree days could go on for weeks.
Climate by Ty Buchanan
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Sea Levels Fall in Eastern Australia

It seems the Earth is trying to balance out global warming itself. There could be a natural balance level that the planet is attempting to reach. In Australia an unusual phenomenon has taken place.

We have had a lot of rain in coastal regions, while inland it remains dry. The arid regions have soaked up the excess water only gradually releasing it to the ocean, so sea levels have not increased. Indeed, sea level has fallen 7 millimeters.

Damaging floods cost Queenslanders millions of dollars. It was so bad that insurance companies refused to reinsured low-lying towns. Even the dry Northern Territory had floods. One of two very close La Ninas was the strongest ever recorded. The year 2012 was rain, rain and more rain.

This is not something that global warming critics should put forward as a natural solution. Only in Australia does the unusual geographic structure of the continent exist. Humid air moved slowly east but moved as far south as Melbourne, pushing up rainfall 20 per cent. Tropical air has never reached Melbourne before.

The fall in sea level is only a blip on the rising graph. The average rise is 3.2 millimeters a year. By the end of the century ocean levels are expected to increase by 820 millimeters, up from previous estimates of 590.

Rising use of carbon fuel may make sea levels rise even more. The oil "boom" in the US threatens all the good work being done by environmentalists to change behavior. Higher production has pushed "peak oil" well into the future. Enthusiasm for non-carbon power sources is waning.
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Tequila's Agave Plant Ideal to Make Ethanol

Yet another plant is suggested as a savior for our fuel hungry future. Agave is a succulent, normally used to produce the alcoholic drink tequila. Its use to make this drink is no coincidence - agave is rich in sugar. It is ideal for making ethanol.

Australia is looking for a plant that will grow in arid areas. Sugarcane will grow on marginal land but not in semi-desert regions. Agave will grow where it hardly ever rains, so it will not take fertile land away from food growers. A pilot test farm has been established at Ayr in Queensland.

Agave is a winner. It gives back five times more energy than is used to produce it. And it makes less greenhouse gas than the manufacture of sugar cane ethanol.

Corn is widely used at present to make ethanol. The quality, however, is variable. Ethanol from agave is superior. Another benefit is that the woody by-product from the plant can be used in making the motor vehicle fuel.
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Blow Dry Dog

"Yes, a little more on the left side, then it will be dry."
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